Home furniture construction is every bit as important as its looks – perhaps even more so. Most home furniture manufacturers offer much the same type of furniture, with not a great deal of intrinsic difference between their overall design and appearance. It is how furniture is made that matters, because you want it to be comfortable, hard wearing and last a long time.

The standard of furniture craftsmanship employed is very important, whether you are purchasing a table, cabinet or sofa. Here is what to look for in your own home furniture before you part with a single cent:

The Construction

You can always tell how well a furniture manufacturer builds it furniture by checking a drawer. Just one drawer is all it takes to make a fairly accurate judgment. Remove the drawer and check the joints. There should be dovetail joints all round, signifying strength and durability. The front joint should be hidden dovetails, so they don’t show on the outside face.

Inspect the outside and inside of each drawer to make sure everything has been properly smoothed down, and its contents are unlikely to be snagged. The sign of good furniture craftsmanship is that even the outside surfaces of the drawers, including the bottom, have been properly smoothed and finished. They should also open smoothly, preferably with a central drawer guide rail to prevent any lateral movement.

Rails and framework should be fitted using proper carpentry joints: cross rails using dovetails or pinned mortise and tenon joints. Mortise and tenons should be used on the main frame of chests, cabinets and armories. The wood finish should be added in steps. This should begin with a preservation coat and then the staining and finishing coats added.

Back panels should not be stapled – these frequently loosen, and the furniture could be weakened. In fact, if the correct jointing techniques have been employed in home furniture construction, the back panels should not be needed for strength – the frame should be strong enough itself. Nevertheless, panels should be attached using screws and corner blocks. An important aspect of taller furniture is that it has been tested for stability. You don’t want a tall chest tipping over when you pull out a filled top drawer.

Furniture Craftsmanship in Upholstered Furniture

Here again the strength of the frame is all-important. You sometimes find upholstered home furniture construction given less attention than that of cabinetry because it is not so visible. However, the frame should at least be constructed from a properly jointed hardwood frame, and not just from plywood panels nailed together as you sometimes find. A well-built frame provides a solid base for the springing and other upholstery, and your chairs and sofas will last a long longer because of it.

The base of the seat should first be correctly webbed and then sprung using steel springs of the right size for the depth of the seat. The springs should be properly secured to a solid wood frame and tied together so that the seat is comfortable to sit on. They should then be covered with canvas or synthetic burlap, and then stuffed using a suitable natural or synthetic stuffing material before adding a final cotton batting that acts as a base for the cover.

The External Covering Fabric

The cover fabric should be hard-wearing, meeting industry standards for upholstery fabrics and also meet any fire-resistance regulations applicable. The cover should be properly tacked to the frame, although it is common these days simply to use a staple gun. The cushions should be filled comfortably, some preferring a coil sprung filling wrapped in a layer of foam or batting. Whichever type is used, the internal fiber should be effectively secured and distributed evenly.

Finally check the overall appearance of the furniture. If your upholstered furniture has been manufactured using proper standards of home furniture construction, it should look good, feel completely stable and also be comfortable to sit on. The covers and cushions should fit correctly, and be neatly sewn, and the seat should offer support at the front edge and not sag.

Home furniture construction is very important, and without being sure that proper standards of good furniture workmanship have been employed in its manufacture, you should not expect it to last. While furniture hand-crafted from solid wood and the best materials can be expensive, you should assess that against the cost of replacing poorly made furniture that fails to last.

‘Millionaires Mile’ has become the place for luxury hotels and villas on Phukets west coast and hosts some of the finest residences the island has to offer and so the name suggests is home to many millionaires.

The road starts on the very south end of Kamala beach and winds along the coast to the headland and the last development on the road, Jomchang, that overlooks Patong bay. The road was home to the very first $1m + villas many years ago and so the name ‘millionaires row’ was born. The road is a dead end at present and stops at the Jomchang development. In time the road may be extended the short distance through the forest which would allow a quicker route into Patong, but also increase tourist sightseeing traffic. The trip from Jomchang at the south end of the road down the windy road into Kamala takes 10 minutes by car with only half of the road newly resurfaced. Once the rest of the road is finished this should knock off a few minutes more.

There are a number of developments still under construction along the road, a few newly opened and of course many older properties, that still would be considered the height of luxury.

At the start of the road just out of Kamala town is Cape Sienna, a new luxury hotel with all you would expect from such a 5 star hotel. Andara is next door and again is a top of the line hotel with amazing facilities and views. Ayara resort is further up the hill and is built right into the rocks on the Andaman sea giving amazing views. Further still is Paresa hotel which sites high on the rocks overlooking the ocean and offers luxury seclusion. Paresa was opened late 2009 and has already had great feedback.

Nestled amongst these luxury hotels are a number of private luxury villas and villa developments with their own gated community. Jomchang, at the very end of millionaires row has a handful of luxury villas all above the US$7 mark. True luxury comes at a price and being on the very well healed millionaires row will of course attract a premium.

The fantastic island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands is still very popular with people looking for villas and apartments in Spain for rental. In particular, there has been an increase in the numbers of people taking golfing holidays here and wanting to book a holiday in Spain villa. This is partly due to the fabulous mild weather that the Canary Islands enjoy even in the winter months and partly because of the investment which has been made by the local authority adding upmarket resorts and marinas. The local authorities realised that visitors looking for holiday rentals in Spain on the Canary Islands could not always find the type of holiday in Spain villa they wanted and they have spent a lot of money to rectify this.

Many towns have undergone a dramatic transformation from cheap package holiday resorts to a desirable location for the discerning traveller who is looking for upmarket villas and apartments in Spain for rental. For the last three decades the Canaries have been popular with British tourists seeking cheap winter sun. Unfortunately with mass popularity came mass construction of hotels, which were often built quickly and cheaply and started to give many resorts a bad name as well as the feel of a concrete jungle. Of course back then renting a holiday in Spain villa in the Canary Islands from the owners direct was not widely available.

Holidaymakers who stayed in Tenerife in the seventies and eighties would see a real change if they visited the island now. Gone are the concrete monstrosities built to cope with the influx of package holiday tourists, and in their place are buildings more in keeping with the surrounding countryside and exclusive villas and apartments in Spain for rental which can be booked direct from the owners. There is a definite increase in the number of visitors who want to plan and organise their own holiday and who are looking to book luxury villas and apartments in Spain for rental direct.

Could it be that cheap package holidays to places like Tenerife are finally on the decline? It is certainly true that, as more people have home computers and internet access, it is very easy to book your own holiday rentals in Spain direct with the property owners. Many people bought holiday homes in Spain in the last twenty years and consequently there is a fantastic choice of villas and apartments in Spain for rental direct from the owners. Most people find that the self-catering accommodation available to rent is often better quality than the similarly priced hotel accommodation.

Tenerife is only one of the Canary Islands which have undergone some updating. Another significant revamp has taken place on the popular island of Lanzarote in the resort of Puerto del Carmen. Holiday rentals in Spain are bound to benefit from the expensive facelift which has been completed in the harbour area. A modern marina with moorings for luxury yachts and a first class golf course have been built for the benefit of discerning visitors who are booking villas and apartments in Spain for rental or are considering a golf holiday in Spain. Even the shops, restaurants and bars on the beachfront are having a makeover to complete the transformation!

Villa Grock, a.k.a. the “Villa Bianca”, in Imperia, Liguria, is a monument and a unique site. Grock worked with Armando Brignole to design it. The characteristic note of this stylistic construction was Brignole’s imaginative, personal and rich “Liberty style”, ideal for the extravagant mansion of an eccentric clown. Grock played a fundamental role throughout the entire house project history. The villa and the park had to the recompose the owner’s spirituality, his way of understanding and living life. Their design and decoration give an almost alienating sensation to the visitor because of their baroque redundancy. As a maximum rationality, combined with constant references to symbolic details and to the latest technologies, the result of this concerted work was a structure able to astonish, surprise and be a stage for the representative functions for which it was designed: the rooms were ideal for Grock’s circus ring, for inviting friends to parties and meetings, and for the creation of his shows, gags and music. It can be said without the fear of contradiction that the Grock Villa really is the home of the Clowns’ King, in its literal sense and without any irony. Symbolic elements referring to an almost continuous mystery trigger can be found throughout the villa’s architecture: Grock’s self-initiation journey through the lights of his mystery and metaphorical beliefs. The villa’s entire symbol system in fact reveals Grock’s personality splitting: he can, on the one hand, be directed towards the lite and carefree reality (actually profound and subtle) that defines the clown’s humoristic figure, and, on the other hand, towards the world’s darkest and most disturbing life mysteries.

The sumptuous and original residence of the greatest clown in history, Grock, is reborn thanks to a unique cultural route, based on new technologies. An exciting, immersive and magical journey dedicated to circus professionals and, in particular, to the Clown art has been imagined in this exemplary restored Villa.

The route goes, with a subtle reference to elegant music, as a creative journey through the clown’s common gestures and expressions, insolent jokes and corrosiveness. The guest is immersed in a fabulous setting and reflected in magical mirrors. He opens wonder closets where ancient happy merry ghosts appear out of nowhere. He is in his own “Alice in Wonderland”, that is in an unexpected place between laughter and nostalgia, between East and West, between culture and evidence of physical prowess. The circus’ world, made of sounds, colors and smells that everyone has known at least once in their lifetime, has always given birth to an intense fascination immediately capturing the imagination. Writers and artists have always been sensitive to the wanderers’ appeal and inspired by these fantastic exotic influences to revive, almost as in a dream, acrobats, dancers, jugglers and clowns who have constantly captured the spectators’ imagination. The circus’ microcosm’s sudden street appearance and ephemeral passage make it magical: it somehow always disappears in thin air again!

Staying in own home is a dream of everyone. People see dreams of owning home at their own choice, but everybody doesn’t able to afford that. Nowadays in the country like India, money is not a barrier of the dream of owning a home. Because all the government and on-government banks in India offer Home loan. These loans are specially given to those people who wants to build-up their own home or purchase a home.

Indian banks offer home loan under different categories, these include:-

Home Purchase Loans – This kind of basic loans are being provided for purchasing a new home.

Home Construction Loan: Banks provides this kind of loan for construction of home.

Home Extension Loan: One can get the loan for expanding or extending his existing home.

Home Improvement Loans: People can avail these loans if they have the requirement for implementing repair works and renovations of their existing home.

Bridge Loans: This loan is the best loan for those people who wants to sell his existing home and wish to purchase a new home. Banks help people by giving this loan to finance the new home.

Balance Transfer Loans: This kind of loan is given to pay off an existing home loan and avail the option of a loan with a lower rate of interest..

Home Conversion Loan: Banks provide this kind of loan to those people who has already purchased home by taking home loan and then wants to move on to another home and for that he requires some extra money. Under this category of loan the existing loan is being transferred to the new home and the extra amount is to be included.

Land Purchase Loans: One can avail these loans for purchasing land. The bank will give the loan without checking whether the borrower taking the loan for construction his home or using it for some other purposes.

Refinance Loans: Those who have taken loans from their friends or relative to purchase their homes, this kind of loan helps them a lot to repay that debt amount to them.

Stamp Duty Loans: To purchase a property, stamp duty is essential. This kind of loan helps people to pay for the stamp duty.

In India, banks provide home loans against fixed and floating rate of interest. Under the fixed rate home loans the interest rate remains fixed for the whole period of the loan. By taking loan under this category the borrower will get the facility of getting a fixed interest rate. But in this case they have to pay a higher rate of interest. On the other hand, under the floating rate loans the rate of interest fluctuates accordingly. The borrower will get the facility of getting a low interest rate. But the interest rate can rise any time and the borrower has to pay a much higher interest rate than the fixed rate of these loans. The repayment of home loans are to be given through Equated Monthly Installment (EMI). The home loan EMI depends on the amount and the repayment period one takes.

In this age of technology, one can apply for the home loan Online. By applying online one gets relief from the lots of hassle like visiting to the lenders, seeking for the best home loan deal, do the huge formalities and fulfill the long paper works. By availing these loans online one just has to sit on a Internet enabled computer, make a search for the best home loan deal and after choosing one just has to fill a form, that’s it. By doing some simple procedures you dreams can come true.

From: The Serious Speculator

Twenty five years ago, I can remember discussing the markets with a very astute and successful investor. He possessed a wisdom that only comes from years of experience. I was telling him about a speculative company that I thought was the hottest thing ever and how everyone was getting involved and were going to be rich.

He listened patiently while I went through my pitch then calmly asked me, “During the gold rush, thousands flocked to the gold fields to strike it rich but, aside from a very few miners who got lucky, do you know who made a fortune yet avoided the limelight?” I thought about it and came up blank so he smiled and told me, “It was the guy that was selling picks and shovels.”

Using that analogy, Chang-On International (OTCBB: CAON) is the proverbial pick and shovel company in the midst of the construction gold rush in China. Construction is booming in China big time. US government statistics reveal that “Construction spending in China increased 165% in the last four years, according to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, and is still expanding at 25% annually.” Source: BuyUSA. At the same time, the Chinese government is putting an emphasis on the greening of the construction industry, both in the quality of construction and construction methods.

A key component in construction projects are the tools used to manufacture components from pipes to concrete walls and water tanks. Most of these components share one thing in common. They all need a mold or “formwork” to be made. In China traditionally these molds have been made out of bamboo or some other wood or steel. The problem with these materials are that steel is too expensive and needed elsewhere and wood molds don’t last very long. Enter Chang-On International.

Chang-On International has developed its own proprietary technology which allows them to build these molds out of a special resin composed primarily out of recycled plastic and fly ash, a byproduct of burning coal. The result of this amazing development is a mold that is less expensive than its counterparts, lasts longer than wood, is lighter than steel and seals better making for a higher quality finished product. What’s more, being made entirely out of recycled materials, Chang-On’s products satisfy the Chinese Government’s mandate for green construction.

Led by an experienced management team headed by Guomin Li, 47, a pioneer in the field of manufacturing building materials from waste products, Mr Li has been the Chairman of Harbin Hongbo Environment Protection Material Ltd since 2004, now the operating subsidiary of Chang-On International. Over the last 4 years, Mr. Li and his staff of researchers have developed and perfected the proprietary technology that is the basis of their newly implemented marketing strategy.

Imagine, not just a usable product, but a superior one, one that capitalizes on the convergence of need, government mandate and demand, made from ground up soda bottles, an inexpensive and plentiful resource and fly ash, an abundant product that, until now, has offered little utility other than as a filler in concrete. Just as often its nothing more than a disposal problem for coal fired plants.

Focusing initially on Northeastern China, Chang-On already has orders and revenues flowing in and they have already begun to draw plans for expansion of their production facilities and for international expansion through organic growth or licensing.

Consider that China currently uses 43% of all the concrete consumed in the world. It’s a primary material for building construction and, that concrete needs a mold to harden in. The right product, the right time and in the right place. Add to that, the diligence and fierce commitment to accomplishment Chinese achievers are globally respected for along with an amazing frugality (less than $100,000 in salaries since 2004) and you have a winning combination that is worth more than a passing glance.

Note: We have been hired to feature Chang-On International on our websites. Please read our disclaimer for more information

At one time the largest airport in the world was in Bangkok, Thailand. After being built the developers wanted to use the most groundbreaking ecological technology in their design so they decided on nanotechnology based heat barrier paint to provide a clear lining that protected their aluminum air-bridge walls from weathering and moisture.

The coverings protected in a thin, transparent coat with a much longer lifetime than old-style fibrous insulation, while also matching beautifully with the design aesthetics.

Since the initial 2005 installation, that same insulation coating is still keeping the Suvarnabhumi International Airport green and energy efficient.

Applying this insulation is also very cost efficient and does not require costly machinery or manpower. The coatings are coated on like paint, with a sprayer, brush or roller, onto walls, ceilings, roofs, or attics.

Nanotechnology-based heat resistant paints have been used around the world since first being introduced in 2004, and are surprisingly just now growing popular in the UK, which is a bit lagging behind other countries in usage of this cutting edge tech, although recognizing its value years ago. In 2007, Nansulate, a patented portfolio of heat barrier paints, were brought up in a report titled, “Environmentally Beneficial Nanotechnologies: Barriers and Opportunities” by the Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). Under scientific analysis, five nanotech applications were put through a detailed study, and nanotech was found to have the capability to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by up to 2% in the near term and up to 20% by 2050.

Nanotechnology and Energy Savings

Nanotechnology is merely the manipulation of ingredients at a smaller scale than previously able to. By manipulating material at the nano scale, materials can be built from the atomic level upwards with much less waste. Materials can take on dissimilar characteristics when you handle them at this level, such as silver having anti-microbial properties or the ability to insulate in a much thinner layer.

Nansulate heat barrier paint technology incorporates a harmless micro-sized nanotech based matter with nano sized makeup that has a very low heat conductivity. Furthermore the matter is hydro-phobic, which offers mold and mildew resistance without the use of toxin or poisons. This matter is delivered in a uniquely formulated clear, love VOC, water-based coating that has outstanding adhesion and light resistance.

Reduction of heat as tested to ISO 8990:1990 “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies” over 8 centimeter plastered, brick walls, was 34.8% at a standard 3-coat, which is approximately 6-7 mils dry film depth, and average energy savings reported by home and building owners is between 20%-40%.

Nansulate gained the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive certification for building construction standards in the European Union from the UNI EN ISO 8890:1999 tests, in regards to building lining specifications. Nanotech Coatings UK Ltd has also been given a contract with the British Board of Agreement, (“BBA”) for tests for the stated utilization of the product on inside walls and ceilings, and outside walls in residential houses for application over inside plaster and outside paneling.

The most difficult of buildings to provide insulation for are old ones. Lots of these contain solid block wall constructions that make it hard to insulate with traditional insulations. Furthermore, outdated fibrous insulations are very vulnerable to humidity, dirt, and other impurities which damage their effectiveness over time. By utilizing a fluid insulating technology that is applied just like a paint, life of the insulation is increased dramatically as well as constancy of performance. Nansulate coverings typically last from 5 to 10 years in outdoor applications, and over ten years in protected inside environments. The coat line is meant to last in all forms of severe environments from offshore oil platforms to freezing climates in Alaska.
Applying the paint is also very cost efficient and doesn’t need costly material. The coats are put on like paint, with a regular sprayer, brush or roller, onto walls, ceilings, roofs, or attics. The job is much like painting a wall; just it is done with a transparent insulation.

Mexico’s Government Health and Social Security administration (IMSS) – applied the Nanocoating in 2009 on the roof of their data center in Monterrey. This site holds the data servers which houses their digital patient information, and these servers were dying due to too much heat in the summer. Following the application of the coating and comparing year over year temp measurements, they confirmed reduction of the inside temperature by 27% and their issue with sever shut-down was resolved.

Homeowners benefit greatly from the ease of use and energy savings, with one Canvey Island residents Nansulate review being, “Prior to painting, our heating costs were quite high compared to what they are now. In fact, since applying the Nansulate I have been able to lower the thermostat from 5.5/6 to 3, basically halving the temperature.”

The future of insulation and energy efficiency is with nanotechnology. Just as computers and cellphones have become smaller and more efficient, so has our insulation technology. Heat resistant paints are the way of the future as the world gravitates toward more Eco friendly and efficient technologies that are inexpensive.

Whether you are a first time buyer or have existing installations of plasma and/or oxy-fuel shape cutting systems, continuous advancements in technology and a growing landscape of low-cost manufacturers and integrators has clouded the automated plasma shape cutting machinery landscape.

Plasma cutting is the result of introducing an electrical arc through a gas that is blown through a nozzle at high pressure, causing the gas to turn into plasma and producing a focused flame that reaches temperatures of 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Automated plasma cutting systems are classified as either conventional or precision (high-definition), based on the characteristics of the cutting flame. Precision plasma systems are capable of producing parts to tighter tolerances, achieving faster cut rates, and producing less kerf and bevel than conventional plasma systems. The cost of these units can also be significantly higher than conventional plasma systems. It is therefore extremely important to properly match the shape cutting machine with the appropriate plasma cutting system.

One of the most common and costly pitfalls buyers encounter is when manufacturers or integrators mismatch machines and power sources. This is often the result of manufacturers not taking the time to understand the buyer’s requirements, having a limited or single-product line of machines, limited OEM access to power sources, and/or a lack of industry/application knowledge. These manufacturers will then often sell with a focus on lowest price instead of lowest cost of ownership, highlighting the strong point of the plasma system or the machine without regard to the limitations of the other. The best precision plasma power source available will not provide users with the desired cut quality and accuracy if it is not mated to an appropriate base machine.

There are many types of plasma shape cutting machines available in the market today. The most common machines are bridge or gantry style machines made from either fabricated steel or extruded aluminum. Construction of the machine is extremely important relative to your application. Machines constructed of extruded aluminum are typically considered to be hobbyist or artisan machines and most appropriate when doing a limited amount of cutting or when cutting light gauge materials. The plasma and oxy-fuel cutting processes create large amounts of heat which is retained in the materials being cut and can cause deflection or warping of aluminum machine components traveling over the hot cutting surfaces, greatly effecting accuracy and cut quality. Fabricated steel machines are highly recommended for any type of continuous cutting process, cutting of plate steel, and where auxiliary oxy-fuel torches may be used. Auxiliary heat shields may also be available to further protect the machine and components from extreme heat conditions.

Cutting machines are available with a variety of drive systems including single-side drive, single-motor dual-side drive, and true two-motor dual-side drive systems. A well constructed single-side drive system or single-motor dual-side drive system will perform extremely well in conventional plasma applications. The benefit of the extra precision offered by two-motor dual-side drive systems will not be realized in conventional plasma applications due to the limitations in the precision of the conventional plasma cutting process itself. Two-motor dual-side drive systems will provide the accuracy and performance required to achieve optimal results from a precision plasma process.

Sizing of the motors and gear boxes relative to the mass of the machine is also extremely important. Undersized motors and gearboxes will not be able to effectively change the direction of the mass of the machine at high traverse and cut speeds, resulting in un-uniform cut quality and washed-out corners. This not only affects the cut quality, but will also lead to premature mechanical failures.

The CNC control is the unit that ties together all of the functionality and features of the machine and plasma source. There are basically two classes of controls used on most of these machines today. Most industrial applications use industrial PC-based control systems such as those produced by Burny or Hypertherm. These units have user-friendly touch screen control panels and are housed in enclosures that can stand up to the harsh environments they operate in. Smaller machines of the hobbyist or artisan types often utilize standard PCs with I/O cards to control the drives and plasma systems. Industrial based controls are highly recommended for any application, are designed for industry specific requirements, are less prone to the typical PC problems, but can be cost prohibitive in smaller applications.

Another important, and often overlooked, feature to consider when selecting a machine is the construction of the rail system. Plasma cutting machines produce and reside in a harsh environment. It is therefore important that the components used in the construction of the rail system be robust enough to exist in this environment. All rail surfaces should be constructed of hardened materials and cleaned frequently so that they do not become pitted and gouged by the splatter of molten steel that will inevitably fall on them. Self-cleaning wheels are also a recommended feature to keep the wheels clean between regular preventive maintenance (PM) cycles. Sizing of the rails should also be robust enough to prevent deflection as the machine travels across them.

The combination of all of the above factors results in the precision and accuracy of a system. Unlike other mechanical machining processes, it is difficult to assign a standard tolerance to plasma cutting processes. Many manufacturers will strongly promote the fact that their machines have positional accuracy of +/-0.007 in. and repeatability of +/-0.002 in.. The fact is that just about any machine on the market can hold tolerances that far exceed the tolerance and capability of the plasma cutting process itself. There are many factors that will influence the cut quality you will achieve on your parts including: the characteristics of the part itself, power settings, consumables, gases used, material type, gauge/thickness of material, part layout on plate, etc.. Ask the manufacturer to provide you with cut samples of your parts or parts that closely approximate the parts you will be cutting, made on a machine/plasma combination that is comparable to what you are looking at. This will give you the most realistic representation of what to expect from a specific machine/plasma combination and the plasma cutting process itself.

Before talking to any cutting machine manufacturer, clearly identify your requirements:

  1. Identify the types of materials will you be cutting with your system (ferrous/non-ferrous, mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, etc.).
  2. Identify the range of material thicknesses you will be cutting.
  3. If you will be cutting a variety of materials and thicknesses, estimate the percentage of each type and identify the primary types and thicknesses.
  4. Determine the size (length, width, and thickness) of plate you will be purchasing in order to properly size the table, effective cutting area, and weight capacity of your new system.
  5. You may also want to look to the future in anticipation of any future types and sizes of materials you may need to process. The upfront cost of anticipating these requirements may be substantially less than upgrading or retrofitting your system in the future.
  6. Identify the tolerances you will need to maintain. This will help determine whether you need a conventional or precision plasma system, as well as the type and construction of the base machine.
  7. Determine how many hours-per-day and days-per-week the machine will be operated. This will determine the type of base machine construction you will need, help estimate the cost of operation, and allow you to compare the cost/benefit of consumables life of various manufacturer’s power supplies.
  8. Determine how you will exhaust your equipment. Water tables do not require exhaust systems, but down-draft tables do. If there is an existing exhaust system in place, identify the capacity of the system in cubic feet per minute (CFM).
  9. Determine if you will need the flexibility to expand the system or add additional plasma and/or oxy-fuel cutting stations in the future. Some machines are capable of only carrying one or two torches, while others can accommodate slave stations for up to a combination of 10 plasma and oxy-fuel torches. Likewise, some machines have fixed cutting areas while others can be extended in length to increase cutting area or accommodate multiple cutting tables.
  10. Define the area in your facility where the machine will be located. Make note of any obstructions, hazards, or access points that will need to be taken into consideration when laying out the new system. Also, identify how your material will be handled in and out of the area (forklift or crane, aisle locations, etc.).
  11. Identify the power you have available, both voltage and amperage.

A reputable manufacturer should ask you for most of this information before making any proposals on a system. If a manufacturer does not have this information, they cannot adequately evaluate your requirements and propose a system that will best work for you and your specific application. Spending the time to identify your requirements up front will not only save you countless hours of frustration resulting from living with the wrong machine, but also save you money by not over- or under-buying a system to meet the requirements of your specific application.

Do You Pass The Mortgage Lender Analysis? When a mortgage lender reviews a real estate loan application, the primary concern for both home loan applicant, the buyer, and the mortgage lender is to approve loan requests that show high probability of being repaid in full and on time, and to disapprove requests that are likely to result in default and eventual foreclose. How is the mortgage lenders decision made?

The mortgage lender begins the loan analysis procedure by looking at the property and the proposed financing. Using the property address and legal description, an appraiser is assigned to prepare an appraisal of the property and a title search is ordered. These steps are taken to determine the fair market value of the property and the condition of title. In the event of default, this is the collateral the lender must fall back upon to recover the loan. If the loan request is in connection with a purchase, rather than the refinancing of an existing property, the mortgage lender will know the purchase price. As a rule, home loans are made on the basis of the appraised value or purchase price, whichever is lower. If the appraised value is lower than the purchase price, the usual procedure is to require the buyer to make a larger cash down payment. The mortgage lender does not want to over-loan simply because the buyer overpaid for the property.

The year the home was built is useful in setting the loan’s maturity date. The idea is that the length of the home loan should not outlast the remaining economic life of the structure serving as collateral. Note however, chronological age is only part of this decision because age must be considered in light of the upkeep and repair of the structure and its construction quality.

Loan-to-Value Ratios

The mortgage lender next looks at the amount of down payment the borrower proposes to make, the size of the loan being requested and the amount of other financing the borrower plans to use. This information is then converted into loan-to-value ratios. As a rule, the more money the borrower places into the deal, the safer the loan is for the mortgage lender. On an uninsured home loan, the ideal loan-to-value ratio for a lender on owner-occupied residential property is 70% or less. This means the value of the property would have to fall more than 30% before the debt owed would exceed the property’s value, thus encouraging the borrower to stop making mortgage loan payments. Because of the nearly constant inflation in housing prices since the 40s, very few residential properties have fallen 30% or more in value.

Loan-to-value ratios from 70% through 80% are considered acceptable but do expose the mortgage lender to more risk. Lenders sometimes compensate by charging slightly higher interest rates. Loan-to-value ratios above 80% present even more risk of default to the lender, and the lender will either increase the interest rate charged on these home loans or require that an outside insurer, such as FHA or a private mortgage insurer, be supplied by the borrower.

Mortgage Closing Settlement Funds

The lender then wants to know if the borrower has adequate funds for settlement (the closing). Are these funds presently in a checking or savings account, or are they coming from the sale of the borrower’s present real estate property? In the latter case, the mortgage lender knows the present loan is contingent on another closing. If the down payment and settlement funds are to be borrowed, then the lender will want to be extra cautious as experience has shown that the less of his own money a borrower puts into a purchase, the higher the probability of default and foreclosure.

Purpose Of Mortgage Loan

The lender is also interested in the proposed use of the property. Mortgage lenders feel most comfortable when a home loan is for the purchase or improvement of a property the loan applicant will actually occupy. This is because owner-occupants usually have pride-of-ownership in maintaining their property and even during bad economic conditions will continue to make the monthly payments. An owner-occupant also realizes that if he/she stops paying, they will have to vacate and pay for shelter elsewhere.

If the home loan applicant intends to purchase a dwelling to rent out as an investment, the lender will be more cautious. This is because during periods of high vacancy, the property may not generate enough income to meet the loan payments. At that point, a strapped-for-cash borrower is likely to default. Note too, that lenders generally avoid loans secured by purely speculative real estate. If the value of the property drops below the amount owed, the borrower may see no further logic in making the loan payments.

Lastly the mortgage lender assesses the borrower’s attitude toward the proposed loan. A casual attitude, such as “I’m buying because real estate always goes up,” or an applicant who does not appear to understand the obligation he is undertaking would bring low rating here. Much more welcome is the home loan applicant who shows a mature attitude and understanding of the mortgage loan obligation and who exhibits a strong and logical desire for ownership.

The Borrower Analysis

The next step is the mortgage lender to begin an analysis of the borrower, and if there is one, the co-borrower. At one time, age, sex and marital status played an important role in the lender’s decision to lend or not to lend. Often the young and the old had trouble getting home loans, as did women and persons who were single, divorced, or widowed. Today, the Federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act prohibits discrimination based on age, sex, race and marital status. Mortgage lenders are no longer permitted to discount income earned by women even if it is from part-time jobs or because the woman is of child-bearing age. Of the home applicant chooses to disclose it, alimony, separate maintenance, and child support must be counted in full. Young adults and single persons cannot be turned down because the lender feels they have not “put down roots.” Seniors cannot be turned down as long as life expectancy exceeds the early risk period of the loan and collateral is adequate. In other words, the emphasis in borrower analysis is now focused on job stability, income adequacy, net worth and credit rating.

Mortgage lenders will ask questions directed at how long the applicants have held their present jobs and the stability of those jobs themselves. The lender recognizes that loan repayment will be a regular monthly requirement and wishes to make certain the applicants have a regular monthly inflow of cash in a large enough quantity to meet the mortgage loan payment as well as their other living expenses. Thus, an applicant who possesses marketable job skills and has been regularly employed with a stable employer is considered the ideal risk. Persons whose income can rise and fall erratically, such as commissioned salespersons, present greater risk. Persons whose skills (or lack of skills) or lack of job seniority result in frequent unemployment are more likely to have difficulty repaying a home loan. The mortgage lender also inquires as to the number of dependents the applicant must support out of his or her income. This information provides some insight as to how much will be left for monthly house payments.

Home Loan Applicants’ Monthly Income

The lender looks at the amount and sources of the applicants’ income. Sheer quantity alone is not enough for home loan approval; the income sources must be stable too. Thus a lender will look carefully at overtime, bonus and commission income in order to estimate the levels at which these may reasonably be expected to continue. Interest, dividend and rental income would be considered in light of the stability of their sources also. Under the “other income” category, income from alimony, child support, social security, retirement pensions, public assistance, etc. is entered and added to the totals for the applicants.

The lender then compares what the applicants have been paying for housing with what they will be paying if the loan is approved. Included in the proposed housing expense total are principal, interest, taxes and insurance along with any assessments or homeowner association dues (such as in a condominium or town-homes). Some mortgage lenders add the monthly cost of utilities to this list.

A proposed monthly housing expense is compared to gross monthly income. A general rule of thumb is that monthly housing expense (PITI) should not exceed 25% to 30% of gross monthly income. A second guideline is that total fixed monthly expenses should not exceed 33% to 38% of income. This includes housing payments plus automobile payments, installment loan payments, alimony, child support, and investments with negative cash flows. These are general guidelines, but mortgage lenders recognize that food, health care, clothing, transportation, entertainment and income taxes must also come from the applicants’ income.

Liabilities and Assets

The lender is interested in the applicants’ sources of funds for closing and whether, once the loan is granted, the applicants have assets to fall back upon in the event of an income decrease (a job lay-off) or unexpected expenses such as hospital bills. Of particular interest is the portion of those assets that are in cash or are readily convertible into cash in a few days. These are called liquid assets. If income drops, they are much more useful in meeting living expenses and mortgage loan payments than assets that may require months to sell and convert to cash; that is, assets which are illiquid.

A mortgage lender also considers two values for life insurance holders. Cash value is the amount of money the policyholder would receive if he surrendered his/her policy or, alternatively, the amount he/she could borrow against the policy. Face amount is the amount that would be paid in the event of the insured’s death. Mortgage lenders feel most comfortable if the face amount of the policy equals or exceeds the amount of the proposed home loan. Less satisfactory are amounts less than the proposed loan or none at all. Obviously a borrower’s death is not anticipated before the loan is repaid, but lenders recognize that its possibility increases the probability of default. The likelihood of foreclosure is lessened considerably if the survivors receive life insurance benefits.

A lender is interested in the applicants’ existing debts and liabilities for two reasons. First, these items will compete each month against housing expenses for available monthly income. Thus high monthly payments may reduce the size of the loan the lender calculates that the applicants will be able to repay. The presence of monthly liabilities is not all negative: it can also show the mortgage lender that the applicants are capable of repaying their debts. Second, the mortgage applicants’ total debts are subtracted from their total assets to obtain their net worth. If the result is negative (more owed than owned), the mortgage loan request will probably be turned down as too risky. In contrast, a substantial net worth can often offset weaknesses elsewhere in the application, such as too little monthly income in relation to monthly housing expense.

Past Credit Record

Lenders examine the applicants’ past record of debt repayment as an indicator of the future. A credit report that shows no derogatory information is most desirable. Applicants with no previous credit experience will have more weight placed on income and employment history. Applicants with a history of collections, adverse judgments or bankruptcy within the past three years will have to convince the lender that this mortgage loan will be repaid on time. Additionally, the applicants may be considered poorer risks if they have guaranteed the repayment of someone else debt by acting as a co-maker or endorser. Lastly, the lender may take into consideration whether the applicants have adequate insurance protection in the event of major medical expenses or a disability that prevents returning to work.

When a mortgage lender will not provide a loan on a property, one must seek alternative sources of financing or lose the right to purchase the home.

Along with the increasing concern on the need to preserve our environment more tightly, nearly all parts of modern people life have now being ruled. It is a good step to help people become aware and also feel like this is also their part to participate in this revolution of the environmentally friendly attitude. In housing management or architecture, the environmentally friendly attitude is also renewed. Green construction is a term that is given to this new trend of green and ecological attitude towards anything related to life style. Green construction is basically a concept that tries to break down the possibilities of making architecture with the essence of environmentally friendly attitude.

It also usually embodies the more detailed concept of green sustainable design which consists of guidance in how to consider architecture and building housing and managing it dealing with the urgent needs of our earth to breathe ad to be preserved by human being, the one, and us who contribute the highest level of earth destruction. It usually consists of some consideration including the place of housing, the interior design, the exterior design, the sanitary, and the materials and so on. It is valuable to make us feel relieving to buy something on this fragile earth.

The green building, from its name has explicitly talked about the need of any kinds of building that should meet environmental analysis on the appropriateness of the environment to be fitted with the need of the building design. By compromising the design without sacrificing the beauty of the building, the green building tries to fulfill people need along with the environmental needs to revitalize themselves. So, it is very important o consider the products of the building that must be very valuable regarding our environment vitality. It is a very solution for our present problems of buildings.

All home owners have a dream of setting up a dust free hardwood flooring scheme in their house to provide a sense of durable style that is extremely pleasing to the eye. The advantages of a hardwood floor are numerous, ranging from sheer strength of structural design to an elegant and beautiful aesthetic outlook.

The flooring pattern forms an integral structure of any home and it is a coveted desire for owners to come up with an attractive flooring option that can make their house a figure of admiration and envy for all neighbors. To maintain such a delicate design, it’s essential to have a proper construction and maintenance plan for the entire flooring architecture.

Hardwood floors have an extremely polished look when newly constructed that adds a brilliant shine to the house. However, such floors are extremely sensitive to dust and dirt and keep getting infiltrated by it with the passage of time. After a few months, most floors are dug deep in dust that ruins the original sheen of the flooring and make them look extremely rugged and filthy.

The accumulating dust also damages the entire structural build as the floors start to develop cracks and a creaking sound indicates the slow but steady deterioration of floors. If the floors are not maintained properly, the damage aggravates even further, forcing owners to search for ways to refinish hardwood floors dust free and bring back some of the lost glory.

Many owners try several self oriented methods for proper flooring work to reduce professional expenses but their lack of experience and skill usually help up making matters worse. A concerned owner should always be in contact with a local flooring agency that specializes in offering dust free wood floor refinishing with a technically proficient team.

They utilize several cutting edge technological options to provide owners with the best flooring experience that can last for a long time without any form of maintenance required. Skilled workmen survey the design of the floor and make personal arrangements based on house design. A floor consultant is always in discussion with the customer to decide how to refinish wood floors dust free and present a number of design options to make an attractive finish.

Dust free sanding in Utah help in making spotlessly clean floors by removing all dust particles using a self propelled vacuum system which deposits the dust at a desired point outside the house. Dust free flooring has multiple benefits as the furniture is not ruined by dust and small particles do not get inside electrical items to cause short circuit problems.

The quality of work is excellent which make the floor spotlessly clean and allows the owner to choose personalized floor colors based on individual preferences. The dust free sanding is done by providing high quality materials, giving more owners across Utah and Salt Lake City have access to high quality dust free hardwood flooring services.

Building a new construction home in a master planned community in the Phoenix Arizona area provides many advantages. From the superior resort-style amenities such as aquatic centers, fitness complexes, tennis, water parks, lakes and lush green parks, to having day to day conveniences within easy access, a master planned community offers a connected neighborhood feel. If this is what you are looking for in an Arizona lifestyle, a new build in a master planned community is a must. Some of these communities are family friendly while others specialize in attracting the active adult 55 years and over.

Most of these communities are conveniently located near major freeways and often minutes from one of several airports.

Because of their sheer size, often exceeding 100 acres, a master planned community can offer elegantly manicured 18-hole golf courses, schools, hotels, retail and a variety of commercial shopping centers, typically featuring anchor grocery chains. Many of the newest master planned communities offer extensive recreational amenities often incorporate lakes and parks, tennis courts, unique and engaging child play areas, and extensive biking and walking paths. Elaborate community centers feature athletic and aquatic centers, spas, education classes and numerous activities for all ages. The developer’s goal is to create an all inclusive attractive environment in which residents can live, work, learn and play all within the walls of a city within a city.

Master planned communities are well planned out residential developments that typically include several builders who join together to offer a wide variety of living concepts and building styles. Often five to ten builders will offer different neighborhood themes and living options from modest condos priced in the $100,000-200,000 range to sprawling luxury estates priced well over $1,000,000. Within each neighborhood one can choose from a wide variety of architectural styles, floor plans, lot sizes, landscaping designs and more. With so many green minded consumers entering the home building market, today’s home builders also feature Energy Star-rated homes and exceptional energy-efficient features that result in major saving on yearly energy bills.

Phoenix Arizona is home to growing list of outstanding master planned communities to choose from when considering building a new construction home. Some of the most active family friendly communities include the unique lake themed Ocotillo in Chandler, Vistancia in Peroia, Verrado in Buckeye, Mountain Bridge in Mesa, The Bridges in Gilbert, Eastmark in Mesa, Estrella Mountain Ranch in Goodyear and Johnson Ranch in San Tan Valley.

A retaining wall design is a structured plan on building retaining walls to restrain soil and other loose material where sudden changes in ground elevation may occur due to environmental factors. The material which was held back by the structure may exert an effort towards the wall where it may overturn or slide it. The most usual type of retaining the wall is the cantilever where it is used for walls that have height ranges of 10 to 25ft. The cantilever beam will compose of the stem, heel and toe of the wall.

A retaining wall design calculates the soil bearing pressure under the foot of a cantilever concrete retaining wall sustaining any type of backfill material with extra loads and condensed peripheral masses staging on the wall.

The retaining plan for walls also includes proper examination of the strength of the entire structure of the wall and then the actual design is executed, either based on the Working Stress Design Method of the ultimate strength design method of ACI or the lateral pressure designed by any of the Rankine or Coulomb theory. The Seismic design is according to the Mononobe-Okabe approach. The wall plans will also consider the possibility sliding of the entire construction. This should be taken into account as the possibility may cause malfunction of the wall.

The necessary input data embraces all wall measurements, backfill slope, concrete and steel concentration, admissible soil bearing load, and backfill properties. The wall plan will alternatively make an allowance for additional peripheral loads applied to the wall, and replacing the pressure. A surcharge may possibly be defined as an equal height of the block. Deep loads might also be used on walls. This is for the most part functional in the design of bridge abutments wherein beams or girders reactions have to be used with support.

All data are necessary to compute the right dimensions in coming up with the wall layout. Designers and engineers will go through in depth research, geographical measurements and critical thinking so that retaining walls are built with quality and durability that is able to stand the assumed environmental conditions that may affect the wall structure. Tools are used to computer the highest soil pressure that is under the toe and heel of the wall and it is compared to a tolerable soil pressure. The safety factor to avoid sliding is then increased according to the comparisons.

The procedure in creating a retaining plan for walls should not be taken for granted. It is critical that the right dimension and calculations are determined so that the right materials are assessed and used for a better retaining wall. A quality retaining wall is able to withstand allowable pressure to prevent unwanted damages. This could be achievable with the right retaining wall design.

Teak home furniture for outdoors is ideal because it is attractive, weather resistant, and is longer lasting than most other types of outdoor furniture available on the market. For centuries woodworker have chosen teak hardwood to make furniture, because it easy to work with plus it offers structural strength and durability. Teak wood is made from large trees that grow 90-120 feet tall and they shed their leaves in the dry season. Myanmar is the country that accounts for one-third of the world’s teak production.

For decorators it is a no brainier, the wood is high in natural oils, therefore resistant to rain, snow, and all other conditions. Plus the grain of the wood is tight making it resistant to splintering, with these qualities coupled the material is perfect for construction of outdoor projects. And because it’s almost maintenance free with a warm color and satiny smooth surface the wood is used to create patio furniture, outdoor decking, indoor tables, chairs, and executive office furniture.

When it comes to maintenance the owner of this type furniture has a free reign. Teak home furniture requires very little care, the only concern is the owners’ choice for appearance, if no maintenance is preferred then eventually the pieces will turn a light shade of silvery gray, which is ideal for some decorators. Others prefer the beauty of the new wood and retain the original color of their pieces by applying annual coats of teak oil, even though the application isn’t necessary because of the durability of the wood, some claim the oil extends the life of the furniture and is very easy to apply.

A tip if you prefer to oil teak home furniture: always apply the oil before the color begins to fade, if you somehow neglect your wood, simply sand the pieces and then apply oil for that like new beauty of this type of home decor. Ensure the surface you apply the oil to is clean; trapped dirt may turn the color of the wood black. It is a fine line of furniture and there is no need to bring in the patio set for the winter months, even if oiled it will look the same when spring returns the following year.

The History Of This Cash Cow

This type of wood was used in the eighteenth century, primarily on vessels as decks and railings. The wood offers the unique qualities of not-rotting, resistance to weather conditions and water damage, and resistance to insect infestation, because of its high oil content. Even after these vessels were no longer operational, the wood was refurbished and used to create the first teak outdoor furniture.

Because teak home furniture will last longer than most other outdoor furniture, which has to be replaced every few years, the cost of the material is a bit more expensive than other materials used for outdoor furniture. The idea is because the material used to create this type of furniture will last a lifetime, the owner of this style of furniture will save money.

We have just had a discussion on teak furniture, this type of furniture is appreciated by decorators who know the quality and longevity of this style of decor. By the same token this decor has a reputation for a rich warm color plus a satiny smooth surface used in patio furniture, outdoor decking, indoor tables, chairs, and executive office furniture. Look for more articles with my name and visit my blog, for future discussions on the exciting topic of home decor.

Trends in furniture design have seen significant changes over the last several years, as more people look to increase the value of their life at home. Some want new furniture to compliment the home improvement projects they’ve undertaken to improve the resale value of their homes. Others are looking for ways to make home life more comfortable and convenient. Whatever the motivation, a desire to add luxury and personality is evident in trends in home furniture design.

Luxury Modern

The emerging Luxury Modern design style features the clean lines, open feel and spare color palette of contemporary decorating styles, with an emphasis on luxury materials. Quarry tile work is preferred over laminate or vinyl, leather fabric over synthetic textiles, and gold-toned metallic accents over chrome. While the house furniture retains the sleek, unadorned lines of contemporary decorating styles, natural materials, such as wood and leather, are more likely to be featured. Glass is frequently used for coffee, dining room and end tables, primarily to better showcase statement decorative objects.

Eclectic Style

With the eclectic style, the focus is on rich colors, materials and textures, rather than on adhering to any single period decorating style. Furniture may be purchased in sets, but it is unlikely that the set will be grouped together. Instead, the pieces may find their way into different locations throughout the home, serving as unifying elements that tie the design together. Whereas in most decorating styles, the intent is to present a cohesive whole, in the eclectic style, each individual piece provides visual interest.

Furniture for an eclectic room may feature an unusual design, fabric or shape. When shopping online or brick-and-mortar home furniture stores for the eclectic style, look for lush fabrics, decorative detailing and interesting forms. Search by color and material, not simply by decorating style.

Old World Style

The continuing trend to present interiors that look as if they have been assembled over time has many homeowners turning to the Old World decorating style. This style features quality house furniture that looks as if it has been handed down for generations. In home furniture, leather is the star of the Old World style. Furniture like sofas, loveseats, ottomans and chairs crafted in fine leather add a feeling of history to home décor.

An earth-tone palette is favored in furnishings in the Old World style, with surfaces such as wood, marble and leather that offer depth and texture, rather than gleam and shine. Textured walls, fine upholstery and heavy fabrics for window treatments are hallmarks of the Old World style.

Trends in furniture design are leaning towards styles that allow personal expression, with an emphasis on quality materials, fabrics and construction. Searching online home furniture stores for the latest trends in furniture may be more convenient than wandering through warehouse furniture stores. Browse stores today to discover that latest designs!

Okay, you have decided to play your part in reducing the carbon footprint and preventing global warming. You have chosen to have a large solar panel constructed on your roof so you can make use of solar energy for various lighting and heating purposes. This would not be possible if your house has a sloping roof. Opting for a flat roof construction has a number of benefits, one of which is that it helps you set up a solar panel to harness the natural source of energy.

There are a number of techniques that you can choose from. Let us take a quick look at three of the most preferred techniques which are being used by various people all over the world.

Membrane Roofing

If you are looking for long lasting roofs that are water resistant as well, then membrane roofs is the best choice. This flat roof construction is put up using multiple polyvinyl chloride sheets. The thickness of each sheet used in this construction varied from 30mm to 60mm. You need not install a separate moisture resistant barrier on the roof prior to installing membrane roofing. You can place these membranes directly on the roof along with insulation that can offer thermal resistance. Once the membranes are installed, they are bonded together. You can either use a special sealer that helps the sheets chemically bond with each other or you can heat the seams so they melt into each other, thus holding them in place.

Built up Roofing

Built up roofing is the oldest roofing technique which is the most preferred technique in the United States. Moisture barriers are installed over the roof prior to proceeding with built up roofing. Alternating layers of waterproofing elements and bitumen are installed over the moisture barrier. It is the number of layers that determines the quality of the roofing. More the number of layers, better is the quality of the roofing.

Spray Foam Roofs

This is the flat construction roofing that uses foam made of polyurethane in order to provide a protective covering to the roof. Rigid sheets of foam insulation are fastened to the roof. The next step of this technique is to mix a foam solution and apply it to the roof with the help of a spray gun. In order to facilitate proper drainage, the thickness of the spray foam roof varies across the entire surface. An elastomeric coating helps hold the spray foam roof firmly in place. It also helps prevent fire accidents and provide water resistance.

Stud wall design plays an important role in noise transmission from room to room in your home. Staggered stud wall design can help soundproof any area of your home.

Construction begins with a wider than normal top and bottom beam, usually a 2 x 6 or a 2 x 8 instead of a 2 x 4. 2 X 4 studs are screwed in an alternating pattern along the base plate. The studs are spaced 16 inches on center across the beam and two 2×2’s are security each end to support the weight of drywall. This creates form of discontinuous construction. This prevents noise from being conducted from one sheet of drywall, through the studs, and into the next room.

Metal studs can also be used in place of timber to further reduce the conduction of sound vibrations. You may also consider increasing the amount of dead space within the walls to accommodate larger amounts of thick insulating material to help absorb sound. All seams in the drywall must also be properly sealed in order to block out unwanted noise.

Finishing the wall with denser materials such as brick, sheetrock, or plaster can also significantly reduce the noise level that is transmitted from room to room. Double layers of sheetrock can be used with an adhesive layer of glue or silicon caulking in between. By alternating seems out of wall covering, the soundproofing qualities of a room are greatly increased.

Special order thicker doors such as those used in commercial applications may also be needed to prevent sound from being transmitted. Common interior doors are lightweight and have a hollow center. Heavier commercial-grade doors block sound more efficiently. If you are installing double layers of drywall or sheetrock, you may also have to special order thicker doorjambs to accommodate the increased width.

Discontinuous stud wall design is ideal for walls separating the garage and the living space of your home, as well as typically noisy areas such as children’s playrooms and laundry rooms. Incorporating discontinuous stud wall design into areas such as your home office and bedroom can enrich your levels of rest and productivity by keeping out unwanted noise.

Discontinuous stud wall design used in conjunction with double layers of dry wall provides an adequate level of soundproofing for a fraction of the cost of using specially design soundproofing materials. The level of soundproofing achieved by changing the design of the stud walls and selecting denser building materials is usually adequate for the purposes of most homeowners.

The home roofing job is the most critical of them all. Proper protection for your house depends on the right roofing techniques. You need to choose the right roofing materials for the particular climatic condition you have in your area of living. The well-made roof gives you the right stability and protection from all-weather related hazards. You can contact a professional roofing expert for proper home construction works. You should pick the right roofing designs like ridged, reinforced, hip, and corrugated metal roofing for perfect functionality and protection. The cost for roofing depends on the materials and the service charges of the technicians.

A planned design of roofs

You need a proper plan before you can start the new sheeting project for your home. An architect or a construction firm can provide you a constructive roofing plan. You can also appoint an all-inclusive service provider for roofing and remodeling. The roof should be designed to protect the interior and outside walls from direct UV rays of Sun. The aerodynamic roofing designs help the home in standing still during a major storm. The ridged roofing design is the most traditional roof of all times. It gives you proper protection from storm, heavy rain and shade from the sun.

The materials you need

There are a number of choices for you in choosing the right roofing materials. You can choose iron and steel sheets, aluminum sheets, wooden and metallic shingles, vinyl sheets, earthen tiles, and concrete blocks. You can choose any of them according to the functionality and your budget. You need to keep in mind that the roof is a protective covering for your home. The materials should be stable enough in enduring natural hazards. You can choose steel sheets over the iron because iron can get rusted within a few months of mounting.

Save your roofing cost

You can save on your roofing job by following some simple guidelines. You need to determine the right quantity of materials you need for roofing. A professional roofing expert can help in this job by proving you a quotation. You can save money by searching online for the cheapest roofing service provider in your area. You must see the past projects of such as roofers before appointing. The technicians must carry the required tools with them. In case they need some extra tools for the roofing job, then you go for the rentals. This way, you can save a lot of money on the construction process.

Nursing home furniture needs to fill a whole host of special needs: from its look, to its ease of cleaning and durability. The best furniture for nursing homes answers all three of these criteria affordably and well – allowing residents and temporary patients alike to live in the closest comfort they can to their own homes, whilst affording nursing staff the maneuverability and solidity they require in order to do their job effectively. As such, good furniture for these places presents quite a design and construction problem – though one, fortunately, that is being answered well by some new corporate furniture web sites: including the UK’s own Triangle Interiors.

Triangle, which has made a pretty successful business out of designing and supplying bulk furniture for conference centres and hospitals, has recently added a quality range of nursing home furniture to its list. The range answers the three design criteria of good nursing furnishings extremely well. Triangle offer living room chairs, for example that have clearly been designed to replicate the kind of chair one might expect to find in the home of a person of that generation: pleasant, naturally colored arm chairs, with high backs and furled armrests. They look almost indistinguishable from the “real” thing – but are stuffed with ergonomic design features that ensure ease of use in the nursing area situation. This nursing home furniture is easy to clean – it can be wiped down and disinfected in minutes. It’s extremely durable, which means it holds its brightness and color, as well as its working features, for a length of time that makes it economically practical to order. And it can be altered to make taking a patient out of it, in an emergency situation, extremely efficient and easy.

There are also ranges of bedroom furniture, built with the same three golden rules in mind. All the beds are comfortable, the tables are ornamental and simply built – but everything works in accordance with the daily requirements of a nursing establishment. This is nursing home furniture at its best: designed to look and feel like “normal” home furnishings, but well capable of withstanding the more intense stresses and strains of supporting less mobile patients. In effect, it’s a trick, albeit a very kind heart one: hospital furnishings, when all is said and done, made up to look like home decoration.

This, of course, is the most important trait of all. A nursing home is a place intended to give dignity, peace and as much happiness as possible to people who can no longer live in their own houses or flats. As such, the better ones are trying to take care of a wealth of memories and habits – and to detract attention from the frustrations inherent in having to be looked after. Nursing home furniture has a vital role to play in this illusion. Everyone knows that it is, really, hospital grade, designed to facilitate treatment rather than ornament: but, in the best of all possible worlds, it’s also reminiscent of the homes the patients have been forced to leave.

This article will provide a general guide on how to and what is required in the construction of your own putting green. It is split into sections, each sections representing one stage of the design and construction of the green.

Design the shape and layout

The first step to take when building your own putting green, is to design it. This will involve deciding on the overall size of the green, its shape, and where you wish to place the holes.

Locate the perfect ground

With our design in hand, we now need to locate an area of ground that will be suitable for our putting green. It needs to be a flat area of ground, or an area of ground that could be made flat with little effort.

Prepare the ground

Next, we need to clear the ground of any obstruction, thus leaving the grass and underlying turf to deal with in a later stage.

Sketch out the putting green’s shape

We now need to use a means to mark out the shape of the putting green. This is done by using a paint spray can on the grass, or some other marking medium that gives the desired clear result.

Top soil and grass removal

The grass and top soil that currently lies within the putting green area will need to be removed. To do this you will need to cut 4 inches deep and remove that grass and soil.

Drainage system installation

With the unwanted top layer removed we now need to implement some sort of drainage system. Obviously, this being a small sized putting green for personal use in your own home, it will not be necessary to install the type of drainage system that exists on golf courses. For the home putting green, all that is needed, is a layer of gravel that has been crushed until it is smooth. With the crashed gravel in place we now need to apply a layer of stone dust and limestone. Note that if your chosen area is below sea level than you will need a proper and very expensive drainage system as the this simple system will not suffice.

Besides ensuring a decent level of drainage, this combination of materials and the compacting of the materials, will also create a nice and firm and robust surface that will be able to handle the many footfalls that it will have to endure during its lifetime.

The putting green’s holes

The putting green uses cups for the holes, and we now need to dig out the holes based on their position in the original design. Once the holes have been dug we need to secure the cups, and this is done by using concrete. The concrete will secure the cups in place.

The final stage – laying the green

Now we are ready for the last stage, the laying of the green itself. Once the green has been laid out, it needs to be secured. This securing is done by the use of sod staples. Note that you do not need to use real turf, especially for a home putting green, as synthetic ones have proven to be very popular and lend to a lot less maintenance. If you wish to take the easy maintenance route than just search out your nearest synthetic grass dealer.

So, there we have it. The many stages of putting green construction in brief, from the initial design and choosing the ground, to ground preparation, and laying the green itself. A more detailed article for each of the above stages or combination of if there is insufficient material for just one of the stages, will be posted in due time.

The campaign for living an Eco-friendly lifestyle has never been so intense compared to how it was in the previous years. One definite reason for this is because we can now obviously see the earth’s deterioration and feel its impact on our lives. Where else could there be the best place to start green living but right in our own homes.

For the exterior of the house there are Eco-friendly construction or building materials that can alternatively used to create an Eco-friendly home. As for the interior, there are of course some green alternative such as Eco-friendly home furniture and decorations. Going green for furniture could be done in three possible means. First is to buy used home pieces. Second is to create your own pieces and choose organic and green materials. Third is to buy brand new sets which are guaranteed to be made from Eco-friendly materials.

Whichever of the three is chosen, there are some guidelines to keep in mind so as to ensure that that the furniture will really be a contribution for a greener earth. Thrift stores are generally selling low cost items for the home, some are pre-used home furniture and furnishings. Other places where second hand home furniture may be bought are garage sales and antique shops.

Most furniture for the home is made of wood. However, look for a kind of wood that is quick to grow compared to other trees like mango or bamboo or other kinds of woods which comes with certification from the Forest Stewardship Council or FSC. This FSC is a nonprofit group that promotes preservation of all forests worldwide and sets healthy wood standard for use in the industry. Recycling is always a good alternative when it comes to greener living at home or in any other areas. When it comes to home furniture, there are times when a new furniture is not at all needed. Sometimes all the furniture needs is repainting and refurbishing and it will again look like new.

Choose a paint or varnish that is non-toxic, add a few pieces of new and highlighting hardware like knobs. Upholstering is also another means to make the furniture look brand new. Use seat covers that are made or organic cloth and fiber instead of leather. Vintage cloths would be nice to cast a classic interior home style. Leather seem like a good option when it comes to durability for it will definitely last long. However, various elements in the environment are affected with the processing of leather. Leather comes from animals pastured and allowed to graze in cleared forests. The raw material needs to be processed in factories thereby consuming energy and fuel. So leather is not a good option for Eco-friendly home furniture.

Buying local produces is also a helpful way in living a green lifestyle. There are stores nearby that produces, creates and makes their own furniture pieces out of locally grown materials like bamboo. Buying local product also lessens the cost and the need for shipping fees and fuel costs.

In fashion history, there are few brands like UGG in terms of legend of a twist. This branded boot achieved some notoriety during the world wars when air force aviators searched for cozy boots on their cold flights in high altitude. Once called ugs, uggs, ug, or ugg, these branded boots now become a hit on the fashion arena. Trendsetters are tripping over themselves to grab a pair to signify their sensible fashion tastes. Regardless of age, occupation, sex, nobody can just turn around seeing a pair of Ugg.

Search through the fashion market, a large number of UGG boot styles are available, ranging from waterproof sheepskin styles to knit designs. In this branded lineup, the Classic Tall boot is characteristic with various patterns, while embracing the freezing feet with extreme comfort and excellent traction. Ranging from romantic flowers to marbled prints and solid colors, the patterns of this mainstay of the UGG classic collection enable a multitude of options for different style statement. However, these boots are never known out of the Australian boundaries until the surfing crazy in the 1960s. When swimmers and surfers across the ocean gathered on the coastline of Australia, seeing local surfers wearing some big shafts all the time, they noted that and also took to wearing them in public and carried them along when they were en route.

Since then, these boots became more popular out of Australia and even gained worldwide exposure. The debut of this branded downright sheepskin footwear really shocked the western world and there were some fashion conscious people parading to ask it banned. Although it is not a plain sailing, UGG boots have finally won the hearts of the world with their incomparable comfort and now they are considered as a must-have for any stylish winter wardrobe.

Generally speaking, ugg boots are styled for casual wear. That is to say, they can go great with your favorite jeans. Actually these branded sheepskin boots have a versatile performance in terms of fashion expression. They can dress up most outfits from your closet. However, the best bet would be skirts and colored leggings, denim jeans and tights. To be more fashionable and chic, various decorative yet functional designs are added on this classic boot construction, which is also the precious heritage from ancient Aussie.

Sleek and unique, the most popular UGG sheepskin boots are blend of function and fashion to help you withstand the harsh weather in winter. Coming in oodles of styles and colors, it is hard to keep track of them all. The men’ s versions of this brand come in more basic, classic hues and styles but for women, the possibilities are endless in terms of hues and designs.

Now owned by an American company, Deckers Outdoor Corporation, UGG Australia dominates the fashion trend when it comes to winter footwear. Nothing would be short of trendy tastes with any pair of this branded sheepskin boots. A light-hearted winter will be felt!

The green revolution is slowly but surely taking root in the construction industry like in all other arenas of modern life. Today world awareness of global warming and environmental issues becomes common knowledge and all around the world people are starting to act on this very critical problem in many ways, and as we shall see, the most immediate way to adapt good “Green Habits” is at our home. We don’t need to go out there and fight with all the big destructive “Red industries” such as the petroleum industry, to save our precious planet, but rather we can do it quietly yet effectively with green design and construction of our home. More then ever the old saying “charity begins at home” proves to be right, only now a days this charity can have far reaching ramifications that can benefit also our big home – our planet.

Green construction will become the convention as more and more ecological regulations and laws supervising the industrial sector are mandated. The cities of the future will be completely self sustainable in terms of energy consumption, and architects will need to follow strict green design and construction criteria. As a matter of fact, most of the technology for environmental friendly construction already exists and it is only a question of time until we see it being implemented on a regular basis in home and building design.

General contractors too will need to reassess their approach to home improvement and remodeling, putting Eco friendly concepts on green construction to use on every job they do. For instance, recycling of old materials from the job site is completely easy to do with huge benefits to the environment in terms of waist control and reduction. Builders and general contractors only need to do a small attitude revision and a little learning to upgrade and take part in this global change of going green.

The industrial revolution that started 150 years ago brought advances but also marked the beginning of dangers down slope to the environment. Now is the time to start using technologies that can work harmoniously with the wonderful world we live in without compromising our quality of life. Smart green design and construction is the way to go and general contractor and re-modelers as well as home owners are obligated to consider how to implement green construction technologies and products on every remodeling project, small or big!

The rise of fast food restaurants in the world is a current phenomenon. McDonald’s was the first major chain, and it stood unchallenged for many years providing inexpensive fast food and an entertainment experience. The market exploded suddenly, with a numerous variety of franchises spreading to the reaches of North America and eventually to the world. Although the fast food restaurant is a product of modern culture, it has remarkable similarities to church. This may sound like an outrageous statement, but consider the likeness of their history, beginning with the official Catholic Church which “stood unchallenged for many years”; then numerous other denominations were created. Today, churches and fast food restaurants have an easily recognizable physical structure and a set of consistent routines and procedures. They also both teach desirable values through their interaction with society.

Churches are easily recognized by their outward appearance: some are very ornate stone with spires, bells and stain glassed windows, while others have a simpler or conservative construction. Each denomination has a distinct appearance that is duplicated in the towns and cities of North America; likewise, restaurants are easily recognizable. Even a child can spot the ‘Golden Arches’ of a McDonald’s from a distance. Just as there are numerous flavors of churches, there are also many different fast food franchises, that offer a customized menu and atmosphere. Each restaurant has an individual style, but they are all colorful, stylish buildings with bright, large windows.

The inside of franchised restaurants are decorated in the same style, just like in churches of the same denomination. There are standard decorating and furniture by franchise or denomination. For example, churches have seating in a main hall or sanctuary where sermons are received. In a Catholic Church there will be wooden pews in rows, whereas in a Brethren Church there will be modern cushioned chairs, placed in an arrangement of sections and rows. Likewise, all fast food franchises have fixed seating of tables, chairs, and bench seating, but each has its own manner and style of arranging the seating. Inside or out, fast food restaurants and churches are easily recognized by their physical appearance.

Both institutions have predictable routines and procedures that are followed by the people who go there. When going to a church service, you are greeted by an usher; likewise, when going to a fast food restaurant you are greeted by a server. Both can be visited alone, with family or with friend, and offer a social aspect as well. During both social experiences, you will consume food and drink. During the church service you will take communion, bread and wine, and during your restaurant experience you will eat a meal of your choice. One feeds the body, while the other feeds the soul.

Routines will vary by denomination or franchise, but will be consistent in each. For example, all church services involve singing, preaching, offering, and praying, but the order and style will vary by denomination. A Baptist Church service generally begins with a couple hymns and an opening prayer. Then announcements, special music, and scripture reading before the sermon. Sermon. Closing prayer and/or hymn. It’s a predictable experience. Attending a Catholic Mass will be different from a Baptist service, but it will be equally predictable each week.

Likewise, going to McDonald’s involves getting in line at the counter, ordering your food, taking your tray to your table while picking up napkins, ketchup, straws, etc., on the way, eating, and cleaning up your own mess. Then kids can play, while the adults relax. No matter what McDonald’s you visit the experience will be the same. Going to Burger King provides relatively the same experience, but the food, atmosphere, and play items will vary. You could be dropped into a church or fast food restaurant blindfolded, and it’s absolutely certain that you’ll know what’s expected of you when the blindfold is removed!

Finally, both churches and fast food restaurants teach values through their respective institutions. Churches teach biblical values for how people should live their lives. “For the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, gentleness,,,… and self control” is an often quoted verse that names virtuous qualities for people to develop in themselves. There are also many parables that teach about making right decisions. Beyond believing in God, Jesus and the sacrifice of the cross, people are encouraged to strive for good qualities so that they can be good people.

Fast food restaurants teach values, although it is done more implicitly. They encourage cleanliness and responsibility by expecting people to clean up after themselves. The words “Thank You” on the garbage receptacles are an encouragement to dispose of your waste instead of leaving it on the table. Kindness is also exemplified through their advertising slogans. Dairy Queen has trademarked the slogan, “We treat you right.” McDonald’s uses the slogans, “We like to see you smile” and “The smiles are free.” These are feel good, positive statements that encourage the consumer to respond in kind.

Both institutions are involved in charity, collecting money for worthy causes that will help people. Churches collect money through collections to offer programs to the people in their community, while fast food restaurants provide change receptacles at the cash where you can donate to various charities. These are ways that both institutions teach values to the people who frequent them.

Although there are many striking similarities between churches and fast food restaurants, there are also differences. While church is offered at fixed times during the week, fast food restaurants have lengthy and flexible hours. It’s very convenient to eat dinner quickly, inexpensively, and without the work of preparing it. Church services are offered at fixed times and it’s unlikely you will get out of there quickly. As well, going to church is meant to meet a spiritual need, while going to a fast food restaurant is meant to meet a physical need. At the restaurant you are feeding your body, but at church you are feeding your soul. Attending church helps people maintain a balanced life, while going to fast food restaurants merely provides an unhealthy meal, which contributes to an unbalanced diet.

One experience is free, but the other has a cost. You can willingly give a donation or politely decline during offering, but at any fast food chain you will not be given food unless you pay. Fast food restaurants are money making ventures, in contrast to the non-profit nature of churches. The restaurant owner offers this food and service to make a living; whereas, the minister or priest is collecting money to use for the physical or spiritual service of others. It may be argued that the church overseer also receives a salary, but idealistically the salary is given for self-less service and not personal gain.

I have presented this comparison to a variety of different people over the last few years. Curiously, the initial reaction of most people was to adamantly argue against the idea that these institutions were similar. The main reason for their persistent protesting was that they thought it was heresy to make this comparison – between the modern, pagan fast food establishments and rituals and the long-standing Christian churches whose establishment and rituals’ purpose is to reunite the human race with God. For many people, the comparison becomes intensely personal and they feel that it’s wrong.

Overall, there is a sense of strangeness in the similarities that exist between fast food restaurants and churches. The remarkable likeness between the two should not be surprising as they were an invention of people who have been raised in a church-going society. Whether they are active, religious church goers or not, they cannot help but be implicitly affected by this pervasive institution. People are comfortable with predictability; thus each familiar experience, whether in church or a fast food restaurant, is like an old familiar shoe.

“Green construction” is the hottest term in construction right now, but what does it exactly mean? “The practice of creating healthier and more resource-efficient models of construction, renovation, operation, maintenance and demolition” is how the Environmental Protection Agency defines it. Experts say that green construction is not only environment friendly but also has the additional perks of being healthier for ourselves and is highly cost effective as well. The term ‘sustainable development’ is also used for green construction meaning our use of the environment’s resources without jeopardizing its use for the future generations.

At the commercial and industrial level green construction may include anything ranging from water free urinals to making own electricity, but small home owners who would like to follow the path of green construction are often stumped about how to go about it. What can be installed and how much can it save? Who defines green anyway? These are the questions that we must provide answers to, to spread awareness about it.

This new concept has helped attend to one of the gravest threat that modern humanity is facing. The increasing population is consuming more and more resources which are bound to run out- and soon too if some check and balance is not maintained. There is only so much recycling and waste management that one can do. Bigger steps need to be taken and eliminating waste production during construction will be one such step. Green construction can be one step for man but it will be one giant leap for humanity. It is a powerful solution to our problems, but is still not being used to its full potential.

The green revolution is slowly but surely nesting itself in the construction industry like in all other areas of modern life. Today world awareness of global warming and environmental issues becoming common knowledge has made it mandatory for each and every individual to make an effort at his own level. Perhaps the easiest way to fulfill that responsibility is to adapt the habit of green construction at our homes. We do not need to go out there and fight a war against the big bad bullies of the petroleum industry; we can do the same quite effectively by starting with green construction in our own homes. More than ever the old saying, “charity begins at home” proves to be right, though nowadays this saying has more serious ramifications if not implemented.

Apart from personal responsibility, as awareness spreads green construction will become the convention as more and more rules and regulations supervising the protection of the environment are being implemented. The world of the future will be completely self-sustainable if the objectives of green construction are implemented in their true sense. To be precise the technology for it already exists, it is just a matter of implementing it which will be not only beneficial for the environment but will also help you economically as well as for your health.

Energy costs are skyrocketing and climate change is a legitimate threat. With traditional energy resources depleting at an alarming rate, it is imperative that we begin utilizing green concepts into our construction technology and building maintenance. It should be our goal as a responsible society to become energy independent and self-sufficient as soon as possible.

Taking measures to increase energy efficiency should not be thought of as a future endeavor. The time to begin modernizing our office buildings and commercial facilities is now. Building designers and architects have come up with amazing ways to support green development and healthy lifestyles from within small towns to expansive cities. Builders and planners are now on board with constructing facilities that meet or exceed LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. With new green technology being developed every day, new energy efficient and LEED certified buildings are going up at a monumental rate.

Wind and solar power are just two ways that a new green building can be energy independent. Clean solar or wind energy can power entire city blocks, not just the building where the instruments are installed. It is easy to see how a large commercial building has an impact on the surrounding community. By installing solar panels or wind turbines, a modern skyscraper can be a positive force for change to the entire city. When one giant leads by example and demonstrates how beneficial – economically and environmentally – operating a green facility is, it won’t be long before the entire city follows suit.

Obviously, not all buildings are new construction, and no one will tear down a perfectly good building in order to build a more efficient one with new green technology. But there are some steps that can be taken that will make even the oldest commercial building operate more energy efficiently.

Taking measures to decrease water waste is just one way a building can save money and have a positive impact on the environment. Installing tank-less hot water heaters and water-regulating faucets and toilets will have a significant impact on the overall amount of money saved in utility bills. Other steps a building maintenance department can take are making sure the HVAC system is operating correctly and replacing all incandescent light bulbs with energy efficient fluorescent ones. Cleaning and maintaining a building’s HVAC system will keep it operating at optimum efficiency, ensuring clean airflow and ventilation, while swapping out traditional light bulbs for fluorescent ones will drastically reduce electric bills and electricity consumption.

By incorporating green standards and green construction techniques into our commercial buildings, we will all enjoy the benefits of lower utility bills and clean, renewable energy. By reducing carbon emissions and water waste, we are creating an environment that the entire global community can enjoy for many years to come.

Industrial vs Non-industrial Plasma machines

Plasma cutting technology is a widely used process that has gained widespread popularity for its ability to cut most forms of metal and is quite favored for its simplicity in use. It’s versatility with its range of capabilities and applications have made it a universally accepted metal cutting process.

Non-industrial Plasma

Non industrial plasmas are best suited for garage users of steel fabrication who require plasma cutting perhaps 2-3 hours per day 3-4 days per week. A plasma in this class is best suited to small operations that work on mostly customised jobs. Non industrial plasma units are much cheaper to purchase than industrial plasmas but cannot tolerate the ongoing high volume that an industrial Plasma is designed for. Air plasmas and lower end conventional mechanised plasmas generally fall into the category of non-industrial plasmas.

Industrial Plasma

Industrial plasmas refer to plasma units geared towards high volume large production facilities that have enough work to elicit a machine to operate a full eight hour shift five days per week. Plasmas in this class usually can operate up to three eight hour shifts per day, seven days per week if necessary. If your operation fits into this category then an industrial plasma is not only preferable, but an absolute necessity.

Higher end Conventional plasma and High Definition Plasmas fall into the category of industrial plasmas. With modern day advances however High definition is generally the plasma of choice due to the higher levels of automation they provide as well as the higher level of cutting proficiency they are capable of achieving.

Advantages of Industrial Plasma (high definition plasma)

• Lower operating Costs

• Oxygen and multi-gas capability for improved

• Faster Cut speeds

• Improved weldability

• Significantly longer consumable life

• Thicker cutting capability

• Quick disconnect torch

• 100% duty cycle

• Hi-Definition technology

• Best cut quality including squarer edges and rounder holes

• Mark, cut and bevel with the same consumables

• More process options for optimizing cut quality

• Remote (CNC) gas switching capability

• Patent TruHole technology for best plasma cut holes – unique to Hypertherm high definition plasmas

• Hdi thin stainless technology

• Optimal gas mixing for mid-range stainless steel

• Higher pierce capability

• Much higher automation

• Higher resale value

• Much longer life on machine

• Significantly higher production capability

• Significantly higher computer aided design capability

Essential components of an Industrial plasma cutting machine

What is most essential to a plasma machines ability to provide continuous quality cutting are the ‘Controllers’ of a plasma unit. A well-engineered, well-constructed control unit is essential to providing consistent high level cutting precision and quality, carried out at high speeds over long hours. A poor to average control unit is incapable of achieving consistent precision especially over long production intervals where it is likely to overheat or break down.

Controllers consist of five main components: Power source, controller, a lifter, drives and servo motors.

Power Source

It is very important to get a renown plasma source for your machine to achieve a high performance and reliability to deliver consistent cut quality, high productivity, lowest operating costs whilst lasting you a long time for your business.

Lifter

The lifter is an essential component providing precise height control of the plasma torch. Utilizing a quality THC height sensor will reduce the cut to cut cycle time (up to 60%), provides better cut quality due to proper assembly of torch height, savings on power and longer consumable life.

In addition the quality torch height controllers automatically adjusts voltage for proper torch height to optimize cut quality and consumable life. Traditional torch height controls require an operator to periodically adjust arc voltage to ensure proper cut height.

Control

The controller needs to have all the process expertise built in resulting in flexibility and ease of use for the end user. A quality controller has a digital I/O sercos system that will deliver reliable motion system quality and will improve the cut quality and productivity.

The software should allow flexibility and ease of use for the end user, so a person with little or no experience on the controller can cut like a seasoned professional in as little as a day.

High End Servo Drives and motors

High end drives like Bosch help ensure high stiffness essential for accuracy, minimal backlash and easy adjustment. The servo drives receive command signals that amplify and transmit electric current to the servo motor in order to produce motion proportional to command signals.

Their main advantage over DC and AC motors used in non-industrial plasmas is the addition of motor feedback which can be used to detect unwanted motion or to ensure the accuracy of a command motion. Servos in constant speed changing use typically have a better lifecycle than DC/AC motors and can also act as a brake by shutting off generated electricity from the motor itself.

Bosch Servo motors

Bosch servo motors allow for precise control of angular position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a sophisticated motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback.

Stepper motors typically used in low end CNC machines provide no feedback encoder as drive signal specifies the number of steps of movement to rotate. This lack of feedback limits performance as the stepper motor can only drive a load that is well within its capacity otherwise missed steps under load may lead to positioning errors.

Low rails

Industrial plasma’s usually feature low rails secured to the ground to ensure the highest level of stability driven by helical drives to provide optimal accuracy during the rapid fast moving of the plasma beam during long production intervals.

Table design rails usually seen on non-industrial plasmas won’t have the same level of rigidity and are thus less suited to high volume rapid pace production. In addition with rails built onto the cutting table and so close to the plasma, with constant long duration cutting the rails are at risk of distorting in shape (over time) due to the constant exposure to heat.

CAD / CAM software

To greatly improve the efficiency of production in a high volume settings you require a more advanced software to provide a much wider range of functions which greatly enhance the productivity of that operation. Using a more advanced software unit can provide some of the following advantages just a to name a few:

• Import CAD and CNC files

• Separate multiple parts from a single CNC file

• Group Parts into clusters for nesting

• Automatic and manual nest sequencing

• Control cut directions and cut sequencing on part by part basis

The addition of a quality software allows a much higher level of automation, significantly reducing key punching and is user friendly enough to allow even the most novice operator to cut parts like a seasoned professional.

Cutting table

For the purposes of industrial fabrication it is essential that a cutting table is well constructed, heavy and durable to meet the demands of an industrial operation. In most non-industrial plasma units, cutting tables are constructed from thin sheet metal and alluminium castings to reduce the cost of the overall unit. The problem with this is that due to the thin, light construction, the table can shake or wobble, adversely affecting the accuracy of a cut part. Furthermore over long production periods, due to the ongoing exposure of heat generated from the plasma these tables are likely to distort over time.

The durable robust construction of an industrial plasma table is essential to give the table stability for the highest level of accuracy and to prevent heat distortion.

Industrial plasma units usually offer the choice of a water or dry table with a dust collection unit. Water tables are cheaper to purchase but require much more ongoing maintenance and cleaning which over time becomes more expensive than using a dry table with a fume extraction unit. In an industrial environment both are acceptable.

Non-industrial plasmas usually come with water tables once again to reduce overall the cost of the unit though some are offered with a dry table and fan which is only sufficient in removal of dust and fumes in a light fabrication setting.

Having a Support team

The purchase of a Plasma machine whilst being an expensive investment can provide enormous returns to any business where there is a demand for work, the correct facilities are utilized and they are maintained with the right level of care.

It is essential therefore that a full support team is available to service your machine for ongoing maintenance, in the incident of a breakdown or where any other form of technical support is required.

In any high volume industrial environment any down time can translate into large losses in profit so it is important to have a local service team, but more to the point a team who knows the full operation of the machine from bolt to bolt, to shorten the time required to fix the machine, though also to provide phone support for quick fixes that do not cost any call out fees.

Why Non-Industrial Plasmas are so much cheaper to purchase than Industrial Plasmas

Many first time buyers of Plasma machines may look into purchasing a non-industrial plasma as a form of entry level use not fully understanding the full capabilities or limitations they have especially when compared to industrial level plasmas.

A cheaper price tag is often the motivator to go with a non-industrial plasma but in the long run once users have been able to thoroughly compare the two in performance, reliability and productivity it becomes very clear why non-industrial plasmas are so much cheaper.

In most situations fabricators who start out using non-industrial plasmas find with ongoing use that their functional capacity is very limited and with further research and exposure to industrial plasmas that they eventually upgrade to one as they provide much greater productivity, more flexibility in use and better quality cut parts with consistent precision. In addition industrial plasmas have a much greater lifespan, are a lot more durable and are built to handle a much higher degree of volume equating to far better value.

Many manufacturers of non-industrial plasma machines try to capitalize on the lower end cheap market by providing only the bare essentials of plasma cutting. Many of the reasons they can offer a plasma machine at a cheaper price is due to reasons including:

– Often software is not included in the package and in many cases users need to integrate a separate laptop/PC to operate the CNC cutting function. Even when software is provided usually they only provide very basic functions.

-Table and beam are constructed of thin light constructed sheet metal, not suited to heavy duty fabrication and are highly likely to distort in shape over time, due to ongoing heat exposure generated from the plasma. Rails are also built onto the table rather than being bolted into the ground.

This type of design does not provide the stability required to support quality precision during fast rapid movement due to the lack of rigidity and lightness of the table construction.

-Use of DC/AC motors and stepper motors as alternatives to drives and servo motors translate to limited performance, slower cutting, inconsistent poorer precision and positioning, slower acceleration and velocity.

-Fume extraction units are not included and another way to reduce the price on non-industrial units. A water table or dry table with fan are usually what are provided, though with light fabrication this is usually sufficient.

-Cheaper components are normally incorporated that don’t have any real brand reputation for performance or reliability.

-Aside from the above non-industrial plasmas can generally operate perhaps 2-3 hours per day 4-5 days per week and have an average lifespan of about 3-5 years.

Conclusion

For those considering the purchase of a plasma unit it is very important to be clear on the capability of the unit and whether or not that unit can meet all their requirements not just that of a single part.

Plasma machines have been designed to provide varying levels of functionality with a price range to match. Industrial plasma machines are logically more expensive but when the components are thoroughly broken down, one can clearly see that the cost is commensurate with the performance and capability, and in retrospect this is also true of non-industrial plasma machines. When matched in the suitable environment, business owners often see a return on investment within 2-3 years and as smaller businesses grow, industrial plasmas become a very natural progression.

Astonishing is the fact that while environment degradation has been included in the official list of ten threats by High Level Threat Panel of United Nations; we are getting more careless about this phenomenon. We have increased the use of toxic products that reduce the sustainability of the environment. Are we not mindful of how this carelessness can harm the life of humans and wildlife? If we are, why don’t we try to practice ways that make our environment sustainable?

There are several ways to avoid causing further damage to the environment. One of the easy ways to protect environment is by practicing green construction or green building. For those who are unaware of this term, let me give you a flavor of what is it all about. Green construction is the simple process of designing building in ways that make efficient use of resources and conserve energy. If you have cooling units installed in your homes you are going against green construction. Can’t you replace it with ceiling fans and large windows which will keep your home naturally cool and will use less energy than giant sized and heavy powered cooling units? The point is to conserve energy and make your home a healthier place to live in. Along with saving energy, it will save your cost as well.

Once you have made the structure of your house green, an additional change you can bring to add further value to your house is hardwood installation. Especially made for people who are prone to environmental allergies, hardwood installation is a byword for cleanliness, shine and elegance. It makes your interior cozy and warm. No more would have to spend a lot of time on cleaning food spills, for hardwood installation can be cleaned with simple mop or vacuums. It has replaced all other types of flooring because it is durable and easy to maintain. However it is expensive and thus it is out of reach for those who deem costly living an extravagance. Moreover this type of wooden flooring is more vulnerable to moisture. Even a little contact with water can decay hardwood installation.

But all pros and cons considered green construction and hardwood installation definitely enhances the value and functionality of the house. With the level of environment degradation reaching fearful heights, all of us need to practice green construction to avoid long term costs. Green construction increases resource efficiency, reduce the need for maintenance and saves the energy. Similarly hardwood installation complements green construction in its purpose of making the house Eco-friendly and maintenance free. The next time you plan to renovate or build your house don’t forget to make these two styles a part of your construction scheme.

Introduction

Developing countries are characterized in one way by shrinking economies. Sierra Leone is one such country that despite government and donor support, education has been a major challenge. The situation has been worsened, due to the fact that libraries have been neglected. According to the African Development Bank (ADB) Sierra Leone Country Office (2011), the total funds provided for education by the ADB/ADF finances up to 2010, was about US$ 22 million. The project supported the construction of Ninety Eight (98) primary schools, Fifty Four (54) Junior Secondary Schools (JSS), Eight (8) Vocational Skills Training Centres and Twelve (12) duplex housing blocks for teachers. The project also provided training for Four Thousand and Fifty (4,050) teachers. Teacher manuals were also made available. However, nothing was ever made available for library development. This neglect of libraries, means that libraries in Sierra Leone with limited resources, have to work together in order to meet the information needs of their users. One library may not be able to effectively and suitably meet the information needs of all its users. Library cooperation is therefore, urgently needed.

Library Scene in Sierra Leone

The country has all the different types of libraries; they range from public, academic, special to school libraries. In addition to these are information and resource or documentation centres that provide library and information services. Furthermore, there are museums, such as the National and the Peace Museums, and the National Archive which also provide information services.

However, the Sierra Leone Library Board (SLLB) which was established by an Act of Parliament in 1959 serves as the domain of the provision of library and information services in the country. It functions as both the National and a Public library. To date it has a Central library and headquarters located in Freetown, Regional branches in Provincial headquarter towns, and branches in all District towns, totaling twenty one (21) libraries [One (1) central and headquarter library, three (3) regional libraries, sixteen (16) branch libraries, and two (2) sub-branches].

Libraries in Sierra Leone are therefore, institutions for the storage and dissemination of information; are for users; they provide users with guides and other finding lists; they provide adequate access to the documents or records users may wish to consult; they have subject arrangement; and they are cost-effective.

Library Cooperation

The term cooperation describes the joint action of two or more parties for mutual benefit. Library cooperation means exchanging cataloguing records, building complementary collections, exchanging library materials by inter-library loan and document delivery service, joint purchasing of library materials or automated system, providing services to each others’ users. Library cooperation is also described as an agreement, combination, or group of libraries formed to undertake an enterprise beyond the resources of any one member.

There are different types of cooperative activities and some of the most popular activities are reciprocal borrowing, union catalogues or lists, photocopying services, cooperative reference service, delivery services, cooperative acquisition arrangements, subject specialization in collection development, centralized cataloguing and card production, as well as central storage of materials.

Burgett, Harr and Phillips (2004) asserted that there is evidence that cooperation among libraries to share resources goes back to a long way, at least to the first half of the 13th century, when monasteries developed what we would today recognize as union catalogs of manuscripts to aid in their scholarly activities. Musana (1991) indicated that information resource sharing has been in existence as long as libraries and other types of information services. The existence of a library is itself a form of cooperation. Many libraries came into existence because a group of individuals with a common desire and aspiration wanted to put a collection of materials together for use by the group members. Historically, the driving force behind the evolution of resource sharing concept was the desire to satisfy the felt needs of the user population. Earlier, each library was an entity, serving or trying to serve the needs of its own users and purchasing materials to meet their primary needs.

Beenham and Harrison (1990) however noted that a combination of circumstances made it increasingly difficult for an individual library to be self-sufficient. These circumstances include:

a tremendous increase in knowledge and a corresponding growth in publishing;

the spread of education from primary to university level which lead to greater and more diverse demands on the public library services by a much more literate public;

the advance of technology with its effect on industry and commerce and the necessity for employers and employees to develop new skills and techniques; and

increased opportunities for travel and international economic cooperation, which demand up-to-date information about foreign countries.

Existing Library Cooperation in Sierra Leone

There has been increased pressure for libraries in Sierra Leone to cooperate, including plans to create networks thereby making way for resources to be available to users. As such what has obtained is as follows:

Lending of materials – libraries lend materials to each other officially and unofficially to help their users;

Donations – large libraries donate to smaller libraries materials mostly books for their users;

Photocopying – these are available in most libraries. The lending library will copy the needed material and send a copy to the requesting library without having to send the original;

Exchange of cataloguing data – cataloguing data is given to other libraries. The Sierra Leone Library Board (SLLB) provides its data to school libraries that cannot do this technical work properly.

There have been some benefits with these kinds of cooperation existing in the country:

Availability and access to information – there has been significant reach to information by users, since other libraries’ resources can be tapped from;

Lower cost – funds are saved due mainly to the fact that some expensive materials are not purchased as long as they are accessed in another library;

Experience sharing – the exchanging of staff and information provides a platform for learning from each other, especially with cataloguing data; and

Collection development – each library tends to build its collection to the maximum point, narrowing the focus, and at the end building a strong collection.

Notwithstanding, the real benefits that such cooperation should bring about have not been fully realized. Thus, there are certain steps that libraries should take to make this workable.

Building the Infrastructure of Cooperation

The following are essential steps to be taken into account for an efficient cooperation between libraries in Sierra Leone if significant achievements are to be made.

Ensure common understanding and trust. There must be an established better working relationship among and between libraries where common understanding and trust are built up. A continued interaction and exposure of one another resources must be maintained. This can be done by sharing of expertise and experience, signing of Memoranda of Understanding, dialogue to allay fears, and to respect what each party can offer. Exchange of staff if necessary must be done.

Learn from advanced libraries. Furthermore, lessons can be learn from how other national and international cooperation is being conducted. Cooperation is not a day event but something that must be encouraged and built upon. There must be room for trial and error as well as correction of past mistakes.

Management must provide the leadership. Each library management must take upon itself to lead the process successfully. There must be the political will and the willingness to share resources, as well as prioritizing the move towards cooperation. Management must be willing to make positive compromises to reach the desired goal.

Networking and collaboration. The move towards cooperation should not be a one man show. Cooperation can consist of voluntary agreement among libraries, or it can be imposed on libraries by Library Laws or by responsible ministries that fund libraries. It is essential that the participant libraries be willing to work together towards common goals.

Provision of funds. One of the benefits of cooperation is to save cost. However, every library must provide funds for the processes involved. This is particularly so for processing and technical services functions. These must be taken care by individual libraries. As such funding should be provided.

State intervention. In the context of the developing countries state intervention would be called for to enable coordination of a nation’s total library and information resources and ensure adequate funding. This is particularly important given that on the whole libraries in Sierra Leone do not have large enough capital base of their own to invest in such equipment as computer hardware and software, and telecommunications. However, state control must not be allowed to exceed co-ordination as this may to some extent have an effect on the zeal, initiative and the goodwill of participating libraries, institutions and the individual professionals.

The Challenges in Building the Infrastructure of Cooperation

In spite of the benefits accrued in cooperation, there are real and perceived challenges, which, unless properly dealt with, could minimize the chances of even the best conceived scheme taking off. In Sierra Leone, these are:

Overcoming the culture of hoarding – the culture of greed and selfishness that has eaten up the very fabric of society. This has affected even library practice. Libraries are to amass information for the general good of the society.

Limited collections – where participating libraries have not built up their collection to a minimum standard to allow for exchange, they are to grow their collections to some measurable status to ensure fair participation.

ICTs infrastructure – the marked lack of sufficient Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is a worrisome issue for cooperation in this 21st century.
Purchasing and installation of ICTs is very crucial, as well as the education and training of staffs for use.

Staffing – some of the participating libraries have untrained and unqualified staff as a major obstacle. Also, most staff are concerned about their status, efficiency, job security, salaries, and autonomy or independence, and this has affected the synergy. If the fears of staff are to be dispelled through proper sensitization and education, capacity building also must be undertaken.

Management – management must take decisive steps towards cooperation.

In conclusion, information to libraries is as money to banks; it is an indispensable input in the development process of the nation. However, to be effective it has to be optimally available and accessible from every corner if possible. Library cooperation if properly planned and executed offers a solution to a lot of problems faced by libraries, librarians and other information professionals in developing countries as Sierra Leone. Valls (1983) has provided the last words, “cooperation between information centres and the co-ordination of efforts needed to efficiently share resources implies the existence of an infrastructure linking the centres to one another.” This library infrastructure must be built up as it would assist in fostering self-help, exchange information, change society, improve productivity and work life, and share resources.

One of the most explosive industries over the last five years has been in sustainable economic development. Automobile companies are offering smaller, more fuel efficient vehicles along with fleets of hybrid fuel vehicles for environmentally conscious consumers. Furniture retailers are beginning to offer chairs, couches, and tables made of wood grown in responsible forestry preserves. Grocers, restaurants, and major retailers are offering organic food and clothing for customers who want to spend their money more responsibly. However, the most lucrative aspect of the green movement is in green construction. From energy efficient homes to buildings that run on a minimal amount of electricity, billions of pounds are invested annually into green construction.

Graduates with backgrounds in architecture, design, and management should consider breaking into this promising field. The green construction movement is only in its infancy, ensuring long careers for young professionals with the foresight to apply for these jobs. Construction companies of all sizes are beginning to expand their green construction operations, requiring graduates and young professionals interested in learning about this socially responsible field. As well, the possibilities are endless for professionals in the UK who invest their time in this industry. After all, most new commercial and residential buildings and additions will be done with environmental concerns at the forefront.

The skills needed by graduates in the green construction industry are varied and a successful skill set is still developing in this young industry. However, green construction firms are looking for creative, hard working, and committed graduates for design and management jobs. Graduates who can think outside of the box and provide innovative building designs will be successful in the green construction field. Managers, designers, and architects alike need to demonstrate a strong work ethic and an ability to sacrifice some of their time in order to ensure the most environmentally friendly buildings possible. Finally, everyone involved in green construction needs to be committed to the underlying idea of building homes and offices that meet their client’s specific needs.

Graduates who enter the green construction field will find a lot of competition but great financial incentives for successful work. The field of applicants is still small for these positions, giving committed graduates the opportunity to showcase their abilities to hiring managers. Once these professionals get their foot in the door, they will receive between 28,000 and 40,000 pounds per year depending on position. As well, many green construction employees receive stock options through their company which provide a nice bonus on an annual basis.

Whenever, we see an advertisement in daily newspaper referring to Apartments available in 13 Lakhs to 14 Lakhs, we do not try to understand more about it. People rush to the Apartment office or the site office. I myself was very surprised, when I went to the Mero City Apartment office in Hattiban. The site was packed with visitors cars, as if a wedding reception was going on. Inside the office were around 20 Sales girls. All were busy explaining their apartment features to the customers. In fact, when I asked for the brochure, the number of brochure also had finished. The hall was packed with customers and I could see some bookings were done.

The model apartments and the computer aided 3D movie were in display. People were busy viewing it.

The price range of the Apartment was amazing. The price range of the Mero City Apartment varied from Nrs 1,500,000 for 1 BHK (386.45 sq.ft) to Nrs 4,000,000 for 3 BHK (1013 sq.ft)

Similarly Eastern Apartment by Aayusha Developers a subsidiary of Oriental Builders Pvt. Ltd in Kaushaltar also was a huge attraction for Apartment buyers.

The builders have opened the booking for only 348 of the total 448 apartments. However, they were able to sell 50% of the total booking in just first 5 days. The huge response from the customers surged the developer to call all the 448 units on booking.

Due to the huge demand, the developer requested the interested buyers to fill up an application form along with a cheque of NRs 10,000. The applicant would get the apartment on first come first serve basis.

These are the basic strategies for Developers which was already been implemented by Guna Colony for their sale of their Bhaisepati Apartment. Then, they had opened booking for the Bhaisepati Apartment price starting from 13 Lacks. There was huge respondent to the Apartments in Bhaisepati which was organized in the Real Estate Expo in Bhrikuti Mandap, Kathmandu.

Most of these apartment sizes is ranging from 386.45 sq.ft to 548 sq.ft. The apartment size of 300-500 Sq. ft is very small for a family to live in and are similar to Studio Apartments abroad. These kinds of Apartments can adjust 1/2 people in a family to live in. The Rooms are very tight and no space for adding more luxury items.

The customers must not just make their decision by viewing the 3D Modeled video. The actual room and the customers view before buying the apartment might actually just not match.

Another important factor to decide before making the booking is that the customer must check the background of the Apartment Developers. Normally, we must only trust experienced Apartment Developers. These low cost apartments that are coming up in the market have been raising huge amount of funds from the market for the Proposed Apartment/Housing. The delivery and execution of these apartments is a real challenge and we must wait and see, if they can really develop these projects and their handover to their customer. So far, the construction of any of these low cost apartments has not started yet.

Some established developers claim that the price the low cost apartments are offering is suspicious. Some claim that these low cost apartments are very expensive if one calculates the rate per sq ft. Such small apartment size is not feasible for a family to live in.

The Eastern Apartment is the least expensive with price per sq. ft of Nrs 2,890 followed by The Sun City. The most expensive is the Imperial Court. However the target market for both the apartments is completely different as Imperial Court is a Luxury Condominium.

And when we compare the different apartments, all has different facilities. Some important comparison factors of the facilities for different Apartments are as following:

1. Location of the Apartment
2. Number of Lifts
3. Size of the Balcony
4. Project Land Site Area
5. Size of the swimming pool
6. Open Area
7. Distance from the city
8. Quality of finishing goods and specification
9. Developers profile & Construction company associated

The Apartment buyers must also think in mind the extra facilities the Apartment has. Normally, these apartments will have very poor infrastructures and facilities. They might actually come up with a very small swimming pool & very less open space.

And not to forget is the fact that these low cost apartments come with hidden cost. Mero city Apartment comes with cement flooring. If you want a Parke ting or tiles on the floor, you will have to add all the internal decorative items for the Apartment.

Mero City offers the following features:

* Kitchen: Tiles, Sync

* Flooring: Cemented

* Wall: Distemper

Things you have to add by yourself

1. Mostly, the modular kitchen
2. Bathroom sanitary items
3. Electricity bulbs
4. Flooring Tiles or Parke ting

This will at least cost you Nrs 400,000 to 500,000 for the completion of the Apartment. So the Total cost for the 391 sq.ft Apartment is now Nrs 2,000,000 which actually brings the price per sq.ft for the Apartment to Nrs 5115.

Similar is the case of the Eastern Apartments. The Eastern Apartment comes with no finishing in the bathrooms. The buyers will have to finish the bathroom costs & Tiles which will also cost them minimum extra NRs 400,000 to 500,000 for their flats. This will cost the buyers of Eastern Apartment an average cost per sq ft of Nrs 3,608.

This is actually expensive than some of the other Apartments with better facilities. So the customers must be aware of the concept of the low cost apartment that is coming in the market and not be fooled by the price they are offering. One should always calculate the Rate per sq. ft.

It is undoubted that a fantastic purse can help to set a woman apart from the others in the crowd in a great way. Usually, the most suitable purse for us is not necessarily the most fabulous one, but the one that agrees with our own styles and personality. With an ideal purse, we can be inspired to create various fashion styles, exploring as many possibilities in the purse as possible. Thus, it is vital to select the right purse.

Considering the relationship between the purse and your body figure, you should pay attention to the shape and size of a purse to see whether it can flatter your body figure well or not. Generally speaking, a wide purse with a long strap can be an ideal choice for women who have big breasts and hope to draw attention away from the chest. For petite women, small sized round purse can be great. On the other hand, the way you carry the purse can also affect how your body shape look like. For example, if you want to look taller, then you should choose a bag that hangs lower than your waist.

The color is also a key factor that you should think about when choosing a right purse. If you are good at color matching, you must have paid great attention to the choice of accessories’ colors, which play an important role in creating a wonderful fashion style. When you pair the same clothes with purses in different colors, as a result, you can get all kinds of interesting and exciting styles.

You can get a lot of fun by exploring the many possibilities of the purse in creating various great fashion styles. However, not every purse can display the potential to match all kinds of ensemble, but only the one that suits you most can provide such a potential.

Assessing the values of delicate home furniture

Sometimes the home owner might make the decision to purchase some modern home furniture such as the supremely elegant black dining room dinette set that is available in home furnishing shops and on the internet. This piece of furniture will make meals the occasions that they need to be. That means that if you are entertaining there is no need to worry about the kinds of things that you are going to use. The efforts can be saved for the other items such as cutlery and cooking utensils. The use of the supremely elegant black dining room dinette set that is available in home furnishing shops and on the internet is therefore a great achievement for the home owner.

This type of furniture will cost somewhat more than the standard items that you use in the home. It is an investment in the kind of lifestyle that you wish to create for your family. It is reasonable to expect that you will get the best quality when you decide to go for the supremely elegant black dining room dinette set that is available in home furnishing shops and on the internet. In the true style of the age, this is a system that tends to work very well with modern settings. You simply configure your home in the way that you want it and then wait for the results. You are almost guaranteed satisfaction when you purchase the supremely elegant black dining room dinette set that is available in home furnishing shops and on the internet.

The homes that decide to buy the item will be please by their purchase of the supremely elegant black dining room dinette set that is available in home furnishing shops and on the internet. It is a delicate balance that includes looking at the item and then trying to fit it within the home settings. If it appears that the furniture is not going to make the grade then the clients can try to find alternative solutions. The end result is that the furniture is merely one of the choices that they can make. Using this sort of set will ensure that you are well served by the supremely elegant black dining room dinette set that is available in home furnishing shops and on the internet.

Some people might be concerned about using the item because they believe that purchasing the item will cost them too much. For it is not worth it to buy the supremely elegant black dining room dinette set that is available in home furnishing shops and on the internet. They would rather spend the money on alternative projects from which they can expect some sort of compensation in the long run. This might be the wrong way to go about things because the purchase of the item is not about money. Cost are not too important when buying the supremely elegant black dining room dinette set that is available in home furnishing shops and on the internet.

Get ready for the newest hip hop releases. Summer 2013 has officially arrived and we’re gearing up to give you the business of the new music artists’ releases!

Now before we continue, let me just make clear that a lot of rumors have surfaced as to exactly what is about to go down during this hot, sticky, and sexy season.

For starters, Lil Wayne’s songs and other new hip hop music releases will be served handsomely on a platter via your local favorite Summertime radio station, that is. Besides, who would’ve really doubted Lil Wayne songs as yet another regulatory bypassing of judgmental fodder for submissive temporary airplay? Not us.

Besides, the boy has been among the top hip hop artists since he killed audiences with those none other than dare I say who? If you guessed TT Boi a.k.a. Sir 2 Chainz, then you guessed right my friends. Remember back in the Spring of ’07 when we all couldn’t wait for the newest hip hop releases? Ever since that historic mind-blowing period for Playaz Circle, 2 Chainz has gone on to become seemingly out of nowhere literally one of top music artists to date.

But that’s not all, because my sources inside tell me that this summer’s newest hip hop music will be an ever so eventful one considering the likes of the classic duo even once more collaborating.

Just in time. Right on the money, huh? Pssst… we hear this one’s aiming to be a classic.

In other rumors of new hip hop music, Rocko’s not at all in any type of a hurry to take a break thus far in getting off of his wave. After all, so is everyone else riding it out along with him. Definitely be on the heavy lookout for one of his brand new music releases around midway through this hot Summer season.

Oh yeah, and for all you doubters and forgetful types out there, guess which hip hop music artist is making a steady and long-awaited comeback? Younger shorties prepare to pinch yourselves accordingly, for you may not know who this is.

Just not too long ago, the former Cash Money record label signee, known to other artists as Young Turk, was released from prison on what had foully appeared to be trumped up felony-related charges upon him and other music artists as of late.

We hear that Turk is currently back in the lab perfecting and fine-tuning his “oh so” Lil Wayne-ish like craft effortlessly for a sharp and secondarily memorable return.

We wish him well.

*On a sidenote, we also heard unconfirmed rumors of Young Turk once again collaborating with his former group mates Weezy and Juvenile for an official Hot Boy’s reunion.

Hip Hop music artists Hot Boys Young Turk and B.G. were both incarcerated due to what apparently led to the former groups fallout, among other unsolved issues. The new hip hop music releases that are slated for this year’s Summer should be on smash to say the least.

Without giving away all of the goods, I must say that fellow west coast artists will become very active once again this Summer in the newest hip hop music scene. Big up to all of the new music releases coming from up out of the new west. As fans, we need a breath of fresh air, for sure and most certainly.

Well, that about wraps up the lowdown on this year’s Summer 2013 annual music artists and upcoming new music releases. Definitely keep an eye out for the west coast as mentioned for the west will certainly provide this Summer’s classic club bangers and newest hip hop music. Turn up!

What we do about our body hair changes with the trends and fashion just like the length of our skirts. The seventies, it was way cool to just leave your hair natural. If you had a lot of pubic hair, so be it. It was considered sexy. Now, though, it is becoming more fashionable to have less hair – less on your bikini area, especially. And not only is it more common to get rid of hair, there are now several acceptable bikini waxing styles – waxing trends and fashions – from which to choose.

You can choose to keep most of your pubic hair and simply wax the hair that grows beyond the part of your body that is covered with your bikini bottom. This is, of course, the easiest, quickest, and least painful bikini waxing style.

You can also choose to keep just a small strip of hair running right up the middle of your triangular private area. This simply involves waxing more of the area. Because you are getting into a more sensitive area, this can be a bit more uncomfortable than just waxing the bikini line.

You can also choose a Brazilian wax. The Brazilian waxing trend and fashion is becoming more and more common; it’s always been common in Brazil – hence the name – but lots of American women are opting for this, too. A Brazilian wax is the bikini waxing style that removes all the pubic hair. You can get it done at a salon or do it yourself with a kit you can buy at the drugstore.

Probably the most interesting bikini waxing trend and fashion, though, is creating designs in the pubic hair area. You can get a template of a simple design such as a heart and either wax only the heart shape or wax every bit of hair except the heart shape. If you wax the hart itself, you will have a heart in the middle of your hair. If you wax the rest of the hair, you will have a little heart hair and no other hair in the bikini area.

You must be the change you wish to see in the world

1869-1948, Preeminent leader of Indian nationalism

Trend #1 – The Internet

Everybody knows that the internet has changed virtually everything… especially the Travel Industry. Online giants like Hotels.com, Expedia, Travelocity, and Orbitz have revolutionized travel. Even Travel Agents & Agencies are booking online while the general public searches and buys their own vacations online. In fact, it’s estimated that 82% of all travel is now being booked online. Travel is one of the most researched topics on the internet… and also the most profitable.

The internet is simple, seamless and the perfect medium for the travel industry. We just point, click, and pack our bags. Before the internet, however, an agent’s bread & butter was commissions earned with business travelers… predominantly flights. American Airlines was the first to pull the plug on paying commissions on flight purchases as the internet started coming into its own and more business travelers were finding better deals online.

Since 1997 well over 200,000 agencies went out of business. Over 1 million travel agents lost their jobs to the internet. That number grew after 9/11. The days of brick & mortar very quickly got taken over by click & order, making for a far more efficient system. However, those very few agents & agencies that could foresee the positive impact the internet could have for them, jumped right into the explosive opportunity that the internet introduced, to maintain as much of their client base as possible. Very few, a decade ago, opted to go with the flow of change. Today, everyone understands that the internet is here to stay. When we are adaptable to change, we flourish… and profit.

Because of the internet, the online travel agent is also home-based. Because of the tremendous opportunity, continuous industry growth, and #1 industry training, today’s travel agent is your mother, cousin, aunt, neighbor, best friend, etc. and earning 60-100% of the vendors commission. It’s for everyone.

Trend #2 – Word-of-Mouth Marketing

Word-of-mouth marketing has been and always will be the best way to market anything. Statistics prove that 80% of all vacations (most anything really) are taken because of a recommendation from a friend, family member or co-worker. Think about the last time you came home from a vacation. Did you keep it a secret? No way! We talk about it for 2 months before leaving and talk about it for 2 months after we get back! And we show everyone pictures and videos! And we recommend the destination and hotel to everyone (or not) and tell them where we bought our terrific deal!

Familiarization trips (FAMs) play a huge part in word-of-mouth marketing. The only way for agents to really learn about what they sell is to experience it first hand. FAMs are put together by cruise lines, hotel chains and destinations worldwide. They usually include accommodation, tours, meals, shows, transportation, etc. Prices are slashed making it affordable for agents to travel multiple times a year… VIP!. The vendors roll out the proverbial red carpet for agents when they arrive. They’re given the most exclusive experience possible because vendors know that when agents return home… they’re going to talk about it!

The average person will purchase his vacation online at retail, once a year.

Agents will travel multiple times a year, all over the world as far and wide as they want to go, for pennies on the dollar. For this, FAMs continue to be one of the major perks today for agents in the industry.

Which takes us to…

Trend #3 – Home Based Business

Travel students, Baby Boomers and everyone in between are bringing travel home!

Leading agencies smart enough to follow the internet trend, have gone online and now offer just about anyone the opportunity to be professionally trained to operate and sell travel from home!! Woohoo!! That’s right! YOU can sell travel from the comfort of your own home and get paid!

Doesn’t it make sense that if you’re going to travel anyway (especially as much as the Boomers), that you buy it from yourself and get paid? Or get paid commissions on the trips your friends, family, neighbors and co-workers are taking already? Of course! Most people will do business with someone they know & trust. You may as well be that person, right?

Agencies quickly caught on to the franchise phenomena online and have opened up the opportunity to just about anyone with a valuable work ethic who is willing to learn. Coupled with word-of-mouth marketing… you’ve got a winning combination! The more knowledgeable you become, the more perks, FAMs, FREE trips, upgrades, etc, become available to you… cha-ching!

I’ve been selling travel for years. Everyone who knows me knows that I’m a travel industry professional. For more than two decades I’ve been asked “How did you come by this work?”

But I also get asked, “What’s the best place to go for our honeymoon?” or “Can you recommend a Caribbean cruise itinerary?” or “What hotel should we stay at in the Mayan Riviera?”

Hey, it’s not rocket science!! If I have the answers and I can get paid for the sale… Hello??

The internet made it possible for me to have my own online agency and benefit even more from the extraordinary perks available to travel professionals! Being online means I don’t really even have to be home. Because my business is online, I am accessible to the world, 365 days of the year, 24/7! Friends and family can book all by themselves while I’m hiking with my dog! I can even book flights or all-inclusive vacations right from my BlackBerry!! WOW! So my home-based travel business is really my mobile travel services!! Super cool!!

We must not forget the amazing benefits that come with owning a business from home as well!

Aside from the obvious travel perks, just about every family vacation now becomes a FAM. As professionals, when we take a few minutes to inspect and ask questions about the accommodations, tours, restaurants that we ourselves are experiencing while on vacation, we’re really educating ourselves for our customers. So our personal vacation now becomes classified as a business trip… and an expense that we can write off! Super cool, again!

On a personal note, I’m only 45 seconds from my bedroom to my office!

It’s a beautiful thing to be able to work from home, anywhere in the world, to have your own business and to qualify for such incredible travel-insider perks. Retirees, at-home-moms, students on the run… it’s available to just about anyone with a can-do attitude, has a strong work ethic, loves to learn, and is highly self-motivated. A few hours a day can earn hundreds to thousands of dollars! No bosses, no limits!

Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity suggests that time travel to the past is possible via rotating wormholes and/or black holes. The actual technical practicality of actually carrying out such journeys need not concern us since this essay is in the realm of the thought experiment. Now Stephen Hawking says time travel to the past is not possible because he proposes that there is such a thing as a yet undiscovered Chronology Protection Conjecture that prevents this and thus makes the world safe for historians. I’ve come up with a unified theory of time travel into the past that incorporates Einstein’s general theory of relativity; Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture, along with other assorted bits like parallel universes that are thrown into the mix.

Time travel is a staple in sci-fi stories, novels, films and TV series. And, time travel is possible – in theory. We all know about journeying to the future which we do at the rate of one second per second whether we like it or not. Apart from that, if one travels at close to light speeds relative to your place of origin then you can travel to the distant future (with respect to that place of origin) without aging an equivalent number of years (the twin paradox). Travel to the past is apparently allowed too, via the weird physics inherent in rotating worm holes and maybe Black Holes which is where Einstein’s general theory of relativity comes into play. The problem there is that relativity theory predicts worm holes, if they exist at all, will exist for nanoseconds and be very tiny to boot, and thus not very useful in the foreseeable future for the purposes of time travel. Because we don’t know exactly what the inside of a Black Hole is, and where it leads, if anywhere, current thinking suggests that jumping into Black Holes are a more useful means for committing suicide than for traveling to the past, but the jury is still out on that one.

Anyway, the fun bit about time travel is the various paradoxes that arise, the most famous one being the grandfather paradox. That is, what if you travel back in time and kill your grandfather before he sired your father (or mother). If you did that it means that you could never have been born, but if you were never born you couldn’t go back in time to kill your ancestor. This is the sort of stuff sci-fi authors (and philosophers) love – ditto physicists! My favorite time travel paradox however is the one where you get something for nothing. Say you have this edition of “Hamlet”, and you want Shakespeare to autograph it. So back you go in time to Shakespeare’s era. You knock on his door, but the housekeeper says he’s out for the day but if you leave the book he’ll autograph it and you can come by and collect it next morning. When Shakespeare comes home, he sees the book, reads it, and is so impressed he spends the night making a copy. You come back the next morning, collect your now autographed edition of “Hamlet”, and return to the present day with your now very valuable book. The question now becomes, where did the original “Hamlet” come from? You didn’t write it; but Shakespeare didn’t either as he plagiarized your copy which he then passed it off as his own work.

Another favorite is you meeting yourself. Say you’re 50 and not all that well off. You get the brilliant idea to travel back in time and convince your younger self to invest in some stocks you know will pay off big time later on down the track. And so it comes to pass that your younger self so invests, and becomes filthy rich, only, in leading such a high life, dies of a heart attack at the age of 45! Or you always regretted not proposing to the love of your life when you were young, and thus go back and convince your younger self to muster up the courage and do so. He does, but as they fly off on their honeymoon, the plane crashes with no survivors. Sometimes you don’t know when you’re well off.

Or if you can travel back in time, then of course others can to. Naturally there’s going to be lots of people interested in particular events, maybe even at the time, seemingly trivial events (yet which turn out in the long run to have had major impact(s)). And so you might have any number of people going back to particular historical focal points, each with their own particular agenda (most of which will be mutually exclusive), and ultimately causing havoc. I mean if person one goes back and influences an event producing a new outcome, then person two might go back and has a go at that result and things get altered again, which will then prompt person three to go back and influence things more to his liking, etc. In other words, history would never be fixed, rather always be fluid. The world is not safe for historians. Since we believe that history (or the past) is fixed, then that what’s written on your history book page today will not alter overnight. Thus, you have probably concluded that time travel cannot happen, will not happen, and has not happened, however much you yourself might wish to go back in time yourself and change something. (Don’t we all really wish some past something, personal and trivial, or perhaps something of major significance could be changed and you’d be that instrument of change?)

Its paradoxes and situations such as the above that prompted Stephen Hawking to postulate that there is as yet an undiscovered law or principle of physics which prohibits time travel to the past – he calls it his ‘Chronology Projection Conjecture’. Since we have never seen, according to Hawking, to the best of our knowledge at least, any time travelers – tourists or historians – from our future, he’s probably right.

So, putting it all together, here’s my theory of time travel: my unified theory of time travel, at least to the past.

Relativity theory has passed every experimental test thrown at it, so the theory isn’t in much doubt and one can have a high degree of confidence in what it predicts, even if that prediction is currently beyond any experimental test. Relativity theory allows for time travel into the past, but, IMHO, only to parallel universes (otherwise known as alternative or mirror or shadow universes) where no paradoxes can happen.

Why only parallel universes? The ways and means by which you can use relativity theory to time travel backwards involves rotating Black Holes or wormholes. There are serious reasons behind the speculation that what’s on the other side of a Black Hole and/or wormhole is another universe. So, therefore it’s relativity’s time travel allowance, but probably to another universe. The Black Hole or wormhole ‘exit’ isn’t within our Universe.

Whatever you do in that parallel universe is predetermined. It’s fate. It’s destiny – all because causality rules. Therefore, there are no unexpected ripple effects other than what was destined to happen. You were meant to be there and do what you do. Therefore, there will be no paradoxes arising.

Astrophysicist Stephen Hawking has proposed his Chronology Protection Conjecture that prohibits time travel to the past within your own universe because of the possible paradoxes that could arise. Why can’t you go back in time in your own universe? That would mean that at a specific time and place you both were not (originally) and were (as a result of going back) present. That’s a paradox. And if you were to travel back in time to a set of time and space coordinates you were actually originally at, then there would be two copies of you occupying the same space at the same time – also a paradox.

But take the grandfather paradox. If you go back in time and kill your grandfather, but your grandfather in a parallel universe, then you don’t prevent your existence, just the eventual existence of yourself, your other self, in that parallel universe. In the case of Shakespeare and “Hamlet”, you gave your copy to a parallel universe Shakespeare. In your original (our) Universe, Shakespeare is still the legitimate author.

Once you time travel from your universe A, to parallel universe B, you can’t return again to universe A because of Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture – paradoxes could arise. However, you could go from parallel universe B to parallel universe C, but, hence never return to either universe A or B – Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture again.

Perhaps some people you’ve seen or known or heard about might be time travelers from a parallel universe’s future. If they then time travel to another parallel universe, then that might account for some missing persons’ cases!

In short, we can time travel to other parallel universes but not to our own; entities from other parallel universes can visit our Universe. No paradoxes need arise. Both Einstein (relativity) and Hawking (Chronology Protection Conjecture) are satisfied and happy campers.

Is that right? No, it’s wrong!

There’s still one very nasty loose end here. What’s to prevent those from a parallel universe meddling and altering our time stream? It’s not enough for them to have a Prime Directive against that – we all know Prime Directives are meant to be broken! So, it looks like Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture must apply to those visitors from parallel universes to our Universe as well. I mean what difference does it make to your existence whether you travel back in time within your own universe and kill your mother before you were conceived, or some serial killer escaping from a parallel universe to our Universe who kills your mother before you were conceived – even though in the latter case there’s no paradox, you still wouldn’t have been conceived of here in anyone’s philosophy!

OK, so relativity allows time travel back in time, but only to parallel universes. The Hawking Chronology Protection Conjecture not only prevents time travel paradoxes in general, but it also prevents parallel universe time travelers meddling and altering our timeline; ditto we humans time traveling to someone else’s parallel universe. But how would the Hawking Chronology Protection Conjecture actually accomplish this? My best guess is that parallel universes aren’t in phase – they aren’t polarized or synchronized in-phase like a laser beam, or the light that passes through your polarized sunglasses – otherwise we’d have some rather hard evidence of them; certainly way more than we do now.

So, if we go to parallel universe B or those from parallel universe B visits us, we’ll, or they’d be respectively out of phase with respect to the universe they are now in. Translated, they, or we, could look, but not touch for all practical purposes. I say for all practical purposes as now and again what’s out of phase (high probability – the usual state of affairs) will sync into phase (that’s rare). But the in-phase times are so few and far between, and last for such a brief duration that it’s unlikely to result in any inadvertent or deliberate timeline alterations. That’s my rendering of the Hawking Chronology Protection Conjecture – he could well have other ways and means in mind.

So another way of putting this is that time travelers would be spectral or ghost-like in their host universe, and maybe that’s where our traditions of ghosts and other things that go bump in the night come from! This is much like the parallel universe ghost or shadow photons that are conjectured to explain some highly mysterious aspects or phenomena contained within the famous quantum double slit* experiment. Now an obvious question is how do all the parallel universe ghost photons get into our physics labs where double slit experiments are carried out? I mean there are no local macro Black Hole or wormhole exits present – are there? Yes in fact there are! Not a macro wormhole, but a micro wormhole – actually wormholes. Theoretically, micro wormholes should exist all around you. It’s just that they are at quantum levels – incredible tiny; way subatomic in size. And they exist for just nanoseconds before collapsing. They are just part of the quantum foam** reality at super microscopic levels, a reality at the level where all things exhibit the quantum jitters or quantum fluctuations. Thus, every second of every day, everywhere, there are little quantum gateways – quantum sized wormholes connections between universes which quantum sized particles – like photons – can traverse! From the standpoint of the double slit experiment, it doesn’t matter whether the parallel universe’s ghost photons came from the past, future or present – just as long as they are, indeed, present!

Now you may think it would be easy to detect these ghostly photons. Just put a photon detector in a totally dark and sealed room. Well, not quite so easy. Some photons can pass through ‘solid’ matter. X-Ray photons anyone? Radio wave photons pass through the walls of your home. If you look at a bright light, you’ll still see light even if you close your eyes. So, your photon detector in your dark and sealed room could easily detect our local variety.

The ghostly bits aside, parallel universe time travelers (or even ordinary time travelers from within our Universe assuming Hawking is wrong)) might explain the sometimes uncanny, often incredible look-a-likes that we all seem to have. A long shot to be sure, but something interesting to ponder.

There’s still one more problem on the horizon. Just because a macro Black Hole or wormhole plunks you into a parallel universe (and of course you’ve got to be able to survive the trip itself which might be problematical), doesn’t mean you’re going to be with spitting distance of your ultimate destination(s) – say a parallel Earth(s). So, time travelers might also need more conventional transport – like Flying Saucers (okay, forget the saucers – like spaceships with fins and rocket motors). But then what’s really there to distinguish a visiting time traveler from a parallel universe from say a run-of-the-mill extraterrestrial from within our own Universe? Maybe you could just put out the welcome mat for both options!

One final thought. Could there be a Clayton’s time travel? – Time travel without traveling in time? At the risk of making Einstein turn over in his grave; I’m going to propose a universal NOW across all universes. Now I know that NOW, when it comes to observers, is a relative thing. An observer in Martian orbit sees Mars’ NOW somewhat before you on Planet Earth sees the same Mars’ NOW because the speed of light is finite. And relative motions and velocities complicate what is NOW. But, I propose (a thought experiment remember) to instantaneously freeze-frame the entire collection of universes’ NOW. Everyone and everything everywhere comes to an instant standstill. Right! We now have a universal NOW that we can study at our leisure (the freeze doesn’t apply to you and me – we’re outside the space-time continuum).

Let’s focus on that subset of all parallel universes – all parallel Earths and time travel between them. Now there’s no reason to assume that all parallel Earths are identical in all aspects. Indeed, some parallel universes may not even contain a parallel Earth! There maybe some parallel Earths identical or so close to identical to our Planet Earth as makes no odds – abodes you’d feel right at home in. Other Earths would differ in various ways, some minor, some major. Still others might be really weird and alien, as in having evolved a dinosaur society, civilization and technology. There was no parallel asteroid impact 65 million years ago; thus no human beings around the traps 65 millions later.

Your subset of parallel Earths would show near infinite diversity in infinite combinations. I say ‘near’ because you can only stretch the term ‘Earth’ or ‘Earth-like’ so far and no farther, before it’s not Earth or Earth-like. A 100% oceanic world is not Earth. If a parallel ‘Earth’ has Venus-like temperatures, it is not Earth-like. If it has a density approaching that of a neutron star, it is not Earth-like. If it has no life on it, even though in all other respects it is a near carbon copy of our Earth, it is not Earth-like.

Now it’s back to the NOW subset of parallel Earths and Earth-like abodes. There’s no reason to assume that evolutionary development; that evolutionary development rates would proceed in each and every case in an identical fashion. Some parallel Earths would still be in the dinosaur era (if they had dinosaurs of course). In some parallel Earths, cavemen and saber tooth tigers rule. In others, it’s Biblical times, or Medieval times or the era when Britannia ruled the waves. Others in our absolute NOW, on yet other parallel Earths, or parallel earthlings, might have just invented the wireless or landed on their Moon (if they have one). On some parallel Earths it may already be what to us will be the 23rd or 24th Century with interstellar warp drive capabilities at hand – and even way beyond that. So, you could seemingly travel to the past and future while actually remaining in our NOW. You’ve traveled in time without really traveling in time, or, time travel without the paradoxes – but maybe that spoils all the intellectual fun of contemplating time travel in the first place!

*The problem solved here is how can you get a classic wave interference pattern behind two slits you fire photons through; even when you fire the photons at say a rate of one per hour? Who you gonna call – ghost photons of course to the rescue.

**Quantum foam – the world may look pretty smooth from a distance, but as you keep magnifying the finer details, the micro world gets ever so slightly bumpier. Close in some more and things get rougher still, until at quantum level everything is a seething cauldron of tumultuous activity. It’s like the sea that looks perfectly smooth and tranquil from Earth orbit, but at rowboat level, you’re terrified as that 50 foot wave comes crashing down on you.

The earliest known residents of what is now Miami were the “Tequesta” Indians. Little is known of the Tequesta Indians other than they resided along the banks of the Miami River over twelve hundred years ago. Believe it or not there was a small natural rapid a few miles upriver from where it emptied into Biscayne Bay. The Tequesta Indians hunted and fished along the banks of the River. In the 16th and again in the 18th century the Spanish established a few small missions along the banks of the Miami River. Spain originally possessed the area now called “Florida”, but ceded Florida and of course Miami to the British in later years. The first American Settlers began arriving in Miami Florida sometime in the early to mid 19th century and settled in and around the River. Agriculture in addition to fishing was one of the few economic mainstays of the area. The River’s water source was the Everglades and it was believed that the wetland could be drained by removing the rapids. Thereby providing additional cultivatable land for the new arrivals to settle and develop as farms. I am very sure that real estate sales and potential profits were a motivational factor as well. Real Estate in Miami has been a motivation from the beginning to present. Regardless of the reason(s) a decision to remove falls by dynamiting was made and implemented in mid to late 1800s. Other than during those years of the Seminole Indian wars the population steadily increased as did the real estate industry.

In the beginning Dade County was a huge track of land that extended from the southern tip of Lake Okeechobee (Fort Worth Florida) south to Key West Florida. Indian Key was the the seat of Dade County until sometime between the years 1860 and 1870. Prior to these years residents of the Florida Keys, other than those at Indian Key were counted as residents of Dade County.

MY RECOLLECTIONS AND REFLECTIONS

Once upon a time there was a little fishing village located in Dade County, towards the southeastern tip of Florida. The name of this village was Miami. Many people living in Miami at the time, pronounced the name “Miama”.

I offer these remembrances’ as one born in the Biltmore Hotel; a land mark hotel in Coral Gables Florida, a town located in Miami-Dade County and a veteran’s administration hospital during the years of WW II. If my stories and recollections seem somewhat disjointed to the reader I beg forgiveness. They are all or at least most inscribed from memories. My only reason for attempting to write this article at all is to impart a few of my impressions/reflections to an interested reader regarding the conception of, development of, metamorphosis of and transformation that has occurred to the area that is today Miami-Dade County and the Florida Keys. My intention is to offer the reader a comparison of sorts to the areas mentioned, the inhabitants, their way of life compared to then and likewise now. I have no intention of smearing of chastising any particular group of people but too simply record the facts as I believe-remember them to be. I will leave it to the discretion of the reader which Miami, Florida Keys he/she prefers to relate. The then version 1945 to 1970 or the now version 2010, in order to provide a comparison between the two I will offer, in addition to my recollections, a few bygone happenings and circumstance conveyed to me by my predecessors on my mother’s side of the family, all residents of the Keys and Key West dating back 150 plus years ago, some still living there. To do this I am going to begin with my earliest recollections following WW II living first in Hamburg Germany, my father was an officer in the Air Force during the war and was at the time stationed there. Since he had not received his discharge my mother and I joined him, I think, sometime in the year 1946.

KEY WEST CONCHS

They Don’t Call Them Conchs For No Good Reason! (yes I know that’s double negative but I use it for emphasis)

Those that have eaten conch can relate to what I mean by this statement. Conk is a very tough marine mollusk. Rumor has it that in the early 1800s the doctors of Key West prescribed for new born babies, that they be set out on the porch to allow mosquito bites. The reason for this was to make the baby immune to the bite of a mosquito. What does this have to do with conch; man those people had to be tough to live in that environment during those very early years. Screens for windows did not happen until late in the 1800s so it is safe to say that these early Keys inhabitants did not have such luxuries. Don’t forget they had no present day amenity such as air conditioning either.

WALTER C MALONEY, JR.-KEY WEST FLORIDA

The Economies of Key West-1800s

It is a fact that at one time Key West was not only the most populated city in Florida but also had the highest per capita income in Florida and rivaled that of many other US cities. The economy was driven by numerous industries during this period of time.

AGRICULTURE

My relatives speak of one, Mr. Walter C. Maloney Jr. (Maloney was my grandmother’s maiden name). The story goes that at some point in time, during the year 1885, Walter left Key West to travel to what was then known as the Gainesville Land Office in Gainesville Florida. There under Grover Cleveland’s land act, I think for the price of fifty cents per acres, he purchased 67 acres of property in what is now known as Marco Island, Collier County Florida. In reality the land he purchased was located on “Horr’s Island”, AKA “Marco Key”, located a mile or two west of Marco Island, Florida. Mr. Maloney’s purpose was to plant, grow, harvest pineapples on this island and sell his produce to the Key West market. To me it’s amazing that a man in his late forty’s’ and then fifty’s would board a sailboat in Key West and navigate his way across one hundred miles of Florida Bay to sell pineapples in Key West. The reader should understand that the waters of Florida Bay are prone to sudden violent storms during much of the year. In addition there were no cell phones or GPSs.

My granddad once told me of a relative, I believe last name “Hart” that would travel from Key West to Chokoloskee Florida to hunt. Chokoloskee is an island located south of Everglades City. This was also a very long boat ride from Key West. Chokoloskee boasts an elevation of 20 feet above sea level. Rumor has it that the reason for its’ elevation was discarded shells of various types deposited by the Indians of the “Ten Thousand Islands”, living in the area many years ago.

Obviously these were a different breed of people during that time in our history.

The Keys and Key West produced other crops in addition to pineapples, tomatoes, I call charcoal another because of the process used to produce it. Hookie-Pokee Ice Cream, made in the shad and sold in the sun, if you aint gotta nickel you cain’t have none. Yes with the heat and humidy ice cream was big in Key West. Cigar factories were also big in Key West.

FISHING INDUSTRY

Like Miami, the fishing industry was and still is a driving economical force. Florida lobster (commonly called crawfish) is still a big ticket industry. In early times turtle and conk were plentiful; today these are for the most part protected throughout the state. I will offer additional experiences I had as youngster with the seemingly unlimited conk and spiny crawfish that could be easily taken from the waters surrounding Key West and Miami Florida.

THE NATURAL SPONGE INDUSTRY

Before the invention of synthetic sponges, sponges were harvested from the sponge beds located in the waters surrounding Key West.

SALVAGE

The waters surrounding Key West also had arguably the most treacherous reefs of any found elsewhere in the world. The history books are full of accounts of ships hitting these reefs and sinking, Spanish galleons loaded with gold taken by force from the natives of North and South America crashed on the reefs and sank with unbelievable regularity.

One of the better known salvage operations of recent times was that of Mel Fisher’s. He and his team of researchers and divers located the long lost “Atocha”. The Atocha crashed and sank on a reef west of Key West in the early 18th century and was loaded with over 400 million dollars worth of gold, silver, precious gems and other valuable artifacts. Most of which stolen by Spanish missionaries and Conquistadors (conquerors) from the Aztecs of Mexico and Incas of South America among many others.

During the 1800s, ships were still crashing on these same reefs. The series of light houses now erected on the reefs were not there during most of the 19th century. This resulted in a very lucrative salvage business during the 1800s. I have heard family members mention that years later, after the warning lights were built on the reefs some residents of the Keys would either allow them to burn out or manually extinguish them for the purpose of causing shipwrecks on the reefs to promote their salvage businesses. All productive salvage operators and operations were required by law to register their salvage ships and any salvaged items with the authorities in Key West which of course served to boost the local economy.

Prior to the erection of light houses on the reefs in an effort to reduce the number and severity of ship wrecks in these waters, the federal government commissioned “light house ships”. These ships and their captains were charged with the task of anchoring on the reefs, 24/7/365 to keep and maintain warning lights. One such ship was captained by another relative of mine Captain Whalton (my mother’s maiden name). Drinking water and other supplies were brought to land locations of these ships and deposited on shore. The crews would then leave the ship in a row boat, get the supplies and row back to their ship. The story goes that one night Captain Whalton and one sailor traveled to shore to transport the supplies back. For some inexplicable reason they traveled ashore unarmed, a war part of Seminole Indians waited, hidden in the bush. Both the captain and the sailor were killed.

FROM HAMBURG GERMANY TO KEY WEST and Back to Miami-THE YEAR 1947-1950 +/-

During my time in Germany but sometime after my Dad was discharged from the Air Force. My Grandfather Whalton called and suggested to Dad that together they should open a hardware store in Key West. At the time Key West did not have a hardware store. Purchasing a “Western Auto” Franchise they opened for business at 515 Duval Street directly across the street from the San Carlos Theater, now a land mark, in Key West Florida. The family remained in Key West for about 2-1/2 years, while Dad and Granddad operated the hardware store. The year was 19850 maybe 1951. The commercial passenger airline industry was stirring-ready to be born in earnest. National Airlines called my Dad and asked him to fly for the airline. Flying being my Dad’s first love, we moved from Key West to Miami, Florida. My parents rented a little house near the main hanger for National. The hanger was located on the east side of Lejune Road but Miami International Airport was located on the west side. We had one car; so when it was time for my Dad to fly, my mother and I would take him to the hanger. There he would board a two engine aircraft renamed for it new purposes a DC 3. The same plane, a C-47, Dad flew during the war with some seats bolted to the floor and some paint applied to the fuselage. A policeman would stop the automobile traffic on Lejune Road and my Dad would taxi his plane across the road and onto the end of the only runway that the airport possessed at the time, which was runway 9. For those of you that have passed through MIA recently I know this seems a bit bizarre, but as was Miami the airline industry was in its infancy. During this time 1950-1955, I would be surprised to learn that Miami Florida’s population exceeded 300 thousand.

After we moved to Miami, I for many years thereafter traveled from Miami to Key West. During summer vacations I worked in the store that my granddad still owned and operated. He had left the Western Auto Franchise and then operated the store as “Walton’s Auto Toys and Hardware.”

Each summer for about 5-6 years my mother would put me on a “Greyhound Bus”. Greyhound ran regularly between Miami and Key West. The bus station as I recall was in Downtown Miami, 8th street, AKA the Trail, AKA US-41. The driver would take a route west on 41 to US-27 or Krome Avenue, turning south on Krome proceeding through Homestead Florida and then left to US-1. Within a few minutes of entering US-1, we would be traveling at rate I believe to be over 80 miles per hour. I feel comfortable that this was so because the land distance from Miami to Key West is 160 miles and the trip never took more than 1 hour and 45 minutes. Folks on a trip today from Miami to Key West by car, you cannot do 35 miles per hour once entering the upper keys.

During the years that I worked in this store, the store would open for business 5-/12 days per week. On Thursdays the merchants of Key West would close at noon. My Granddad, my Grandmother and I would travel out “Overseas Highway”, US-1. With a “four pronged gig” and a bucket walking into the Mangroves that lined both sides of the highway, we could gig enough crawfish (Florida Lobster) for crawfish enchilada to be served at dinner that night, conch style with black beans, rice and fried plantain. During that time, Florida Lobster was plentiful in the Keys; there were no restrictions against harvesting them. Today, first you cannot use a four pronged gig without the risk of incarceration; second harvesting Florida Lobster is restricted to certain times of the year. This is also true of conk that could be taken a few yards off the beaches of Key West and sea turtle cannot be taken at all.

My point is, the quality of life in south Florida has been reduced by the influx of too many people from all over the US, south America and Cuba. I don’t believe that State and Federal authorities have done their jobs in protecting the things that were here when I was young and growing up. I believe that some measure of prudence could have and should have been applied a long time ago. The experiences that I had my children will be denied they will never have the opportunity to know the area the way I knew it.

As one that makes his living as a builder and General Contractor in the State of Florida but has known this area intimately for so many years, I have a number of questions in mind that I deal with on a daily basis, the questions are, 1. What could we have done previously to reduce the impact of uncontrolled influx here and thereby preserve more for future south Florida generations. 2. Is there a possibility of regaining some measure of the resources that were here in the earlier years?

I do believe that these are questions that some of the Florida agencies and law makers now deal with on a daily basis as well. But I’m not certain that the legal vehicle and money resource is available to accomplish the task if so be it possible.

But then with similarity to some higher mathematical problems, I think that the only constant is change and the only variable is time. Is this not also a statement of the development-over development and maybe the resurrection, restoration of south Florida?

Being a traveling nurse has many attractive benefits over regular nursing Firstly, nurses are in demand constantly not only in the US but worldwide. For a nurse that has the desire to travel and earn money, becoming a traveling nurse would be ideal. Of the hospitals and medical facilities rely on traveling nurses to fill roles when staffing levels are lower than normal, but further than that to bring a new level of expertise that may be lacking in the nursing in the respective hospital. So now for the advantages and benefits of becoming a traveling nurse.

Money, like most things in life, would be one of the main reasons someone would choose to become a traveling nurse. Traveling nurses, make considerably more money than their full-time counterparts. For a start the basic wage will be higher for a traveling nurse, when this is combined with overtime or penalty rates such as night shifts- the earnings can become quite substantial. The pay and calculations are performed by the traveling nurse agency and are therefore much more effectively managed. Becoming a traveling nurse is a great way to save money.

Traveling can be a major part of being a traveling nurse. If a nurse wants to see the world- there is no better way than becoming a traveling nurse and seeking work in the areas they want to see. If the traveling nurse is a native English speaker, there will always be a high demand in the US, UK, Canada and Australia (Specifically as they are experiencing a shortage of nurses). Traveling nurse agencies will actively seek nurses, and will assist in organizing visas, accommodation and appropriate work.

Harmony in the work environment for a traveling nurse is not as important as it would be for a full time nurse. The traveling nurse may only be working in the respective environment for a month before moving on to the next assignment. For this reason workplace politics will play a lesser role than in other professions.

The social benefits for a traveling nurse are massive as well. They will get to meet new people regularly and benefit from constant social interaction and communication- which is a large part of being a nurse.

In most cases a traveling nurse will also receive generous health benefits. In most situations agencies that specialize in traveling nurses offer these medical and dental benefits to entice new traveling nurses to them. Some nursing agencies also have 401K plans, which is obviously fantastic.

Working as a traveling nurse, is a fantastic way to quickly build an impressive resume. The experience a traveling nurse receives could be argues that in a shorter period of time the experiences will amount to much more than would be learn via all time position in the one hospital. It will prove to prospective employers that you have life experience, and are mature to deal with all scenarios and situations.

Certain traveling nurse agencies will also offer incentive bonuses for referrals’ to their agencies- recommend a friend and receive a payment. As a traveling nurse is constantly working at new locations with equally new nurses, the opportunities for referrals are high. Further to this, some agencies also offer a completion bonus simply for completing the assignment or placement.

Traveling nurses often travel in pairs or groups. It is a great way to travel obviously, and will also provide a support network for less confident individuals.

Traveling nurses also have the opportunity to assist in the case of natural disaster’s and missionaries where medical attention is urgently required. This may not be for everyone, but the opportunity to be involved tin the rehabilitation of such an event could be considered an honor by some.

One should never rush into the purchase of a large piece of furniture. It’s important to assess the room, think about all the possibilities and potential arrangements, and really get a feel for the space before making any large renovations.

The entertainment wall unit is the perfect instance of such a purchase. This can be an absolutely expansive piece of furniture, dominating an entire wall if you allow it or it can take up an entire corner of your room. On the other hand, you may not want such an enormous piece of furniture to completely change and dominate the look of your room so you may instead opt for a smaller simpler console design. TV wall units are versatile pieces of furniture, coming in all varieties of styles, shapes, and colors. These options should all be taken into careful consideration before going ahead and making any purchase.

Ignoring for now the varieties of styles, materials, or size, let’s examine the most integral part of your purchase: the space for your television. Entertainment wall furniture is designed to house your home theater, with the television as the crown jewel. You want this piece of furniture to compliment your television perfectly. It shouldn’t overwhelm the TV or make it look too small, but rather highlight all of its assets. Take careful measurements of your television before looking at any of these units to make sure you’re going to purchase a unit that will be the perfect fit for your TV as well as the wall space and size of your room.

Now, with that piece of advice out of the way, it’s important for you to select the entertainment center that will really make your home pop. Your existing furniture may already demand that you choose a particular style or manufacturer. For example, a contemporary unit might look out of place in a traditional home and vice-versa. At the same time, purchasing such a large and dramatic piece of furniture may be the perfect time to alter your existing style and give your home a new and up-to-date look. The choice is all yours.

When selecting an entertainment center, you’ll notice that they come in a variety of materials and color combinations. You can buy any design you’d like, all the way from incredibly futuristic designs made entirely of glass and metal to a solid wood piece that looks like it’s from another century. The variety of centers on the market allows you to make any choice that you desire.

One last bit of criteria you should definitely take into account is the size of your room. If you’re furnishing a small room, you should probably purchase a smaller entertainment wall unit so that it doesn’t monopolize your room. These units come in all different sizes, so it’s easy to find the perfect size for any space. If you have a huge room, you may want to think about buying a unit that extends all the way to the ceiling just to break up your room and provide a dramatic and eye-catching focal point.

It’s also important to pick your storage. Cabinets and shelves, closed or open; these are all additional considerations you have to think about when deciding how to store your equipment and accessories. Some units have a combination of cabinets and shelves and are now being sold as sets, which may include a TV nook, two side units and an upper shelf called a bridge. This provides an extra degree of flexibility for homeowners who would like their entertainment unit to double as a bookcase so that they can display books, collectibles and other personal treasures.

When selecting a TV wall unit keep in mind that little details can make a big difference.. Before purchasing, carefully consider everything you’re looking for and start out your search with a well thought out idea and a solid plan. From there, locating the perfect entertainment wall unit should be a breeze.

When you enter right into a child’s room or even game room often times you will discover the room left in complete disarray. The ground that at one time existed within the bedroom has today been completely covered in toys and games from all of the way under the bed to in to the cabinet. We all know that children are usually difficult whenever requested to thoroughly clean up their bedrooms nevertheless it doesn’t continually have to be a battle. This mayhem does not have to be exactly what you notice every single time you enter your kid’s bedroom. Along with many basic tips you are able to have your kid’s bunk beds or even playroom organized within a blink of an eye.

Nevertheless you can make certain of that by purchasing the proper rec room furniture. Here are many illustrations: Loft beds tend to be one of several best home furniture that you can buy. Together with activity furniture, your child can play with it in a massive amount of ways. You will find a lot of things to do that he is able to do in addition to the things that he will think of. Your small one could have several hours of enjoyment with it. This is the rec room household furniture that will make certain that the space is sorted out. Train your kid to arrange his toys and private belongings along with inventive storage space seats. You’ll find a wide range of models readily available that can enhance any rec room. You are able to pick from storage space benches as well as bins and containers.Your child will have to have all of the naps that he could get especially following hrs of playing.

When scouting for kids household furniture, choose only the products and solutions that happen to be of outstanding quality. Do not invest in low cost products that are very likely to break and harm your little one. Generally, you can uncover excellent, quality household furniture for youngsters at affordable rates. And if you do a little investigation you might even find great merchandise that happen to be on sale or even at a discount.In this circumstance you may save considerably.When you are looking at the playroom walls, it is seriously only a question of personal tastes. You might opt for whatever color you like, nevertheless preferably would be 1 that is not too dimly lit. You want your kids playroom to seem inviting. Work with vibrant and bright shades which produce a calming and joyful atmosphere. On the other hand you might make use of a few wall stickers or wall art. Murals tend to be excellent for creating the marvelous ambiance and look you need for the child’s game room.

Another crucial issue in a rec room is the playthings. All things considered, what is a game room without having toys and games? So, when you seek out toys, you need to go for the ones which can be safe, hilarious and also engaging. Don’t forget to take a look at some educative playthings which develop your child’s ingenuity. Those are incredibly good as they expand the children’s creativity.Right now, where exactly can you discover bunk beds for the playroom. You are able to often check out your nearby store and see if you uncover anything you like. On the other hand, for far better price offers and a lot more variety, you should check some world wide web outlets. These usually are fantastic due to the fact they present discounts for excellent items and you are able to browse from the ease and comfort of your own house.